To evaluate the feasibility of coal derived oil, we conducted tests on accelerating ability from standstill for a car with a spark-ignition engine and exhaust emissions from a diesel-powered car. Two types of fuels were used. One type of fuel had properties equivalent to motor gasoline (JIS K 2202, Grade 2) and the other to gas oil (JIS K 2204, Grade 2). Two kinds of test fuels (G-A and G-B) equivalent to gasoline were prepared by mixing 20‰ of refined oil (A) and 20‰ of refined oil (B) with usual motor gasoline blend stocks, respectively. The oil A was highly hydrotreated and catalytically reformed naphtha de-rived from brown coal, and the oil B from bituminous coal. Two kinds of test fuels (GO-D and GO-E) equivalent to gas oil were prepared by mixing 20% of refined oil (D) and 20‰ of refined oil (E) with a gas oil, respectivly. The oils D and E were highly hydrotreated oil from brown coal but had different boiling ranges. We also used com-mercial gasoline (G-C) and commercial gas oil (GO-F) for reference. Research octane numbers of G-A, G-B and G-C were 91.2, 90.6 and 90.5, and cetane numbers of GO-D, GO-E and GO-F 48, 50 and 55, respectively. The test car A with a spark-ignition engine used was in conformance with the Japanese emissiom standard for gasoline-fueled passenger cars of 1978, and the test car B with a diesel engine with the Japanese emission standard for diesel-powered passenger cars of 1987. Each car was equipped with an automatic transmission system. In the accelerating ability test from standstill for the test car A, the running time over 400m on a flat and straight test course was measured. Running times of the fuels G-A, G-B and G-C were 18.80, 18.80 and 18.72sec, respectively. From these results, we concluded that there is no difference in accelerating ability among the fuels contain-ing the coal-derived oil and commercial gasoline. The exhaust emissions, CO, HC, NOx, particulate matter (PM) and soluble organic fractin (SOF) in PM from the test car B, fueled with GO-D, GO-E or GO-F, were mea-sured under the condition of the Japanese diesel 10 mode test and of constant engine speeds at idling, 20, 40 and 60km/h. A slight increase in mass emissions of CO, HC and NOx by mixing the coal-derived oil with commercial gas oil was noticed under diesel 10mode condition, but these mass emissions were considerably below allowable limits of emission standard. Therefore, it was concluded that the fuel containing coal derived oil would produce no serious problems in terms of exhaust emissions.
A twin fluid atomizer of an internal mixing type (TFA-IM) is an atomizer which disintegrates liquids after mixing the liquid with gas and spouts out them from the atomizer port. An atomizer of this type is widely used for atomization of a coal slurry fuel and a viscid liquid fuel. Using immersion liquid method, it was found ex-perimentally that the Sauter mean diameter of a TFA-IM spray along its axis decreases toward down stream. Aiming to make clarify an atomization mechanism by TFA-IM, the mean velocity and the turbulent characteristics of air within the spray and the air jet were measured using LDV. Jets from a nozzle of circular long tube were also examined for a comparison with a jet from the TFA-IM. As the results, it was found that air jets from the TFA-IM have stronger turbulent intensities than these in the jet from the circu-lar long tube nozzle just after its exit and self-preserving of the velocity distribution and the turbulent fluctuation were held within the air jets just spouted out from the TFA-IM. It was also found that these tendencies were held within the spray jets from the TFA-IM. From the relation between decrement tendency of the air turbulence within the spray and decrement of Sauter mean diameter of droplets along the axis of the spray, it was considered that disintegration of liquid, along the spray jet from the exit port of the TFA-IM towards the downstream, may proceeds by the shearing force of Reynold's stress of the air which comes from the strong turbulence of the air within a spray jet.
A method of in situ particle size and velocity measurement in parti-cle laden flow by forward-scatter dual-beam Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) has been investigated both analytically and experimentally. The analysis is based on Mie's electromagnetic scattering theory for spherical particles to relate the collected scattered light power for the LDV optical arrangement to the particle diameter. The measured de-pendence of the pedestal height in the Doppler burst signal to the particle diameter agrees well with calculations from Mie's theory. It should be emphasized that the in-creasing dependence assumption of collected scattered power on the square of particle diameter is not satisfied for the LDV collection optics geometry and the calibration with numerical calculations based on Mie's theory is indespensable. Although the mask has to be attached on the collecting lens to block the unscattered beams, it may be noticed that the monotonic dependence of collected scattered power on the particle size can not be sustained for too small collection opening. The selective data sampling scheme to set the threshold of the certain Doppler cycle number for each burst signal is proved to re-duce significantly the error resulting from particle trajectry through nonuniform incident intensity distribution in the measurement volume, however, overall measurement error at most approximately 30% is evaluated.
Organic components in the wastewater from the cokeoven were Suc-cessfully and rapidly characterized with HPLC, using a ultrahydrogel column and H2O/CH3CN (40‰) mixed solvent. The organic components were found to consist of seven fractions which appeared to be separated according to their molecular weight as observed with gel chromatography. 40‰ CH3CN was selected because of stable base-line and adequate elution time. NaNO3 was found to disturb the separation although seawater was useful as a part of the solvent. The present characterization procedure may be applicable to wastewater of various origins from the coke oven before and after the chemical as well as biological treatment.