As an available method to precisely control the temperature of the adiabatic jacket of a calorimeter, a control system with programed manipulated variable is considered and the influence of the variable on the control characteristics is investigated. The programed manipulated variable is based on the known variation of the calorimeter temperature and is added to the manipulated variable of a follow-up control system. The control tests are mainly carried out by observing the variations of the temperature difference between the jacket and the calorimeter while the calorimeter is heated on various controlling or heating conditions. Consequently, it is found that the programed manipulated variable can decrease the thermal lag of the jacket behind the calorimeter. The peculiar time lag of the heating system for the jacket can be also decreased if the programed manipulated variable precedes the actual temperature by the corresponding time to the equivalent dead time of the system. Since this method can minimize the heating power for the jacket, it provides the jacket with good follow-up characteristics to the calorimeter on temperature even using a simple heating system, not using such a complicated mechanism as the Nenken-style automatic calorimeter.
Catalytic activity of an active carbon produced from active sludge waste for the reduction of NO (400ppm) in air with NH3 at a temperature range of 25 to 250°C, examining influences of humidity in air. The active carbon (R-MGAC) exhibited a remarkable stationary activity in comparison with the conventional active carbons, providing a conversion of 90% in dry air at 25°C by W/F of 5×10-3g·min/ml. Further heattreatment in N2 at 800°C reduced significantly the activity. Activation with H2SO4 (R-MGAC-S (3/400/4) increased slightly the activity in dry air. Humidity in air above 60% at 25°C decreased the activity of R-MGAC, providing a conversion of 12and 4% under 70 and 100% humidity which were about one seventh and one twentyth of that in dry air, respectively. Heattreatment at 800°C and H2SO4 treatment improved the activity in wet air, providing higher conversions of 36 and 42%, respectively under 70% humidity and 20 and 10% under 100% humidity, respectively at 25°C, although retardation by humidity was still marked. The higher reaction temperature up to 100°C de-creased the conversion in dry air but increased that in humid air. The conversion in both dry and wet air increased at higher temperatures than 100°C. Temperature programmed decomposition analysis of R-MGACs exhibited CO2 evolution at two temperature ranges of 200-450°C and 450-900°C. H2SO4 treatment increased very significantly the evolution at the first range, and the heattreatment decreased very much the evolution at the both ranges. The former treatment may enhance the activity in wet air through the more adsorption of NH3, while the latter treatment does through removal of hydrophilic groups. Remarkable activities before H2SO4 activation and significant presence of nitrogen are common to the present active carbon and the polyacrylonitrile based activated carbon fiber (PAN-ACF) in a previous paper. Participation of nitrogen group in their catalytic performance is commonly postulated, although humidity was prohibited completely the activity of the fiber.
In order to control the release rate of antistatic reagents, the reagents were incorporated in the cyclodextrin, and CD-included antistatic reagents was knead with polyethylene and polypropylene. Although the resistance of the antistatic polyethylene resin was similar to that prepared without CD, CD-included antistatic reagents delayed the release rate and the resin was suitable for a long-term use.