Global warming has been recognized as a problem requiring urgent attention. COP3, held in Kyoto in December 1997, decided that within the specified time frame of 2008 to 2102, developed countries must undertake legally binding control and reduce greenhouse gas emissions with numerical targets. For Japan, the CO2 emission reduction target is - 6% from the 1990 level. To clear the target, several countermeasures have been thought and their effectiveness must be measured quantitatively. We compared the effect of the CO2mitigation options relatively by using NIRE CO2 Emission model (NICE). NICE is a domestic energy model, which can evaluate the various scenarios about energy demand and supply. We estimated future CO2 emission of Japan in a short term until the year 2010 and in a long term until the year 2050. As for 2050-year long term, the industrial division countermeasure or the power generation division countermeasure was effective and the considerable amount of CO2emission reduction was possible. On the other hand in short term until the year 2010, it was impossible to achieve the CO2 emission reduction target committed by COP3, even though countermeasures in the industry including the power generation were applied.
The world coal reserves are known having vast expanse and scattered world widely with the proved reserves of around one trillion tonnes in to-to, which engage coal production and supply for more than two hundred years. Actual mineable coal reserves are, however, considered to be minimal, due to constraint by mining depth and transportation distance. The authors have scrutinized economically mineable amount of coal under current economic and mining circumstance in NSW, Australia as a model case. By the study, relationships between railway transportation distance, mining depth and direct cost were analyzed by way of applying the exponential regression method. The results of study revealed that mining constraint and environmental impact are significant and these eventuate to reduce mineable life drastically. Thus, research on economic and technical evaluation method to detect world's recoverable coal and mine life is essential for establishment of coal strategy for sustainable coal supply.
Saturated densities of carbon dioxide+water mixture were measured at 304.1K and pressures up to 10MPa with a vibrating density meter. The phase separations of vapor-liquid, liquid-liquid, and vaporliquid-liquid were observed. The densities of pure water were further measured.