The development of heavy oil is an important means to improve the total recoverable reserves. Therefore, to reduce the development cost, how to enhance the recovery of the heavy oil has been a common problem in the petroleum industry. In that case, how to use the technology of heavy oil recovery, depends on the present status and characteristics of heavy oil, etc. In addition, the development situation of heavy oilfield, is not only single technology but combined with other recovery technology, and it is important to enhance the recovery factor. China has the abundant heavy oil resources to accelerate the development of heavy oil. This paper will introduce the development situation of Liaohe oilfield, which is a typical heavy oil field in China, and discuss the knowledge and effect of China’s heavy oil development.
This paper evaluates CO2 emission increase after the deregulation of Japanese electricity whole sale market in 2016 and considers how to introduce massive renewable energy in order to reduce CO2 emission. A great amount of coal power plants’ construction is planned in Japan not only by newly entering power providers but also by existing providers because of its low cost and a halt of nuclear generators after Fukushima disaster. Therefore, CO2 emissions in Japan will increase after 2016 by those generators. We built the optimal power generation mix model considering recently released construction plans, and estimated the increase of CO2 emission. Calculated results shows that CO2 emissions increase around 10% after the deregulation. In addition to it, we calculated the optimal mix of a battery introduction and a capacity expansion of inter-regional transmission line in terms of costs, developing another optimal power mix model which reflects the variability of renewables. The result shows that by the battery price plummeting, the capacity expansion of transmission line connecting Hokkaido region and Tohoku region will become cost-efficient, and that will make it possible for Japan to use the renewable energy introduction potential in Hokkaido region efficiently.
The use of renewable energy is expanding year by year thanks to the feed-in-tariff (FIT) scheme in Japan, but the financial burden on electricity consumers (i.e. the FIT surcharge) is correspondingly growing and as a result consumers may become increasingly discontented with the FIT surcharge in the future. The present study aims at examining consumers’ acceptance of the financial burden for expanding renewable energy. We estimated how much value consumers find in regional benefits created by renewable energy installed in a town where they were living. We focused on the non-financial regional benefits among a variety of regional benefits, and estimated willingness to pay (WTP) for the non-financial benefits using a contingent valuation method. The results from a questionnaire survey conducted with 1,000 residents in Iida-city, Nagano in 2015 showed that the estimated WTP was 686 yen per month per household. Furthermore, the present study suggested that compared to under the current FIT scheme, they may accept higher financial burden for installing renewable energy when consumers can obtain regional benefits by the installation in a town where they were living.