A middle-duty diesel truck was driven by 7 kinds of test gas oil which contained a GTL (gas to liquid) gas oil (middle distillate of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis oil) with the Japanese 10-15 mode and a truck mode determined by Kawasaki City, and its exhaust emission was measured. Compared with emission characteristics by an ordinary commercial gas oil, the GTL gas oil caused negligible change in NOx emission, but showed 20% and more of the decrease in CO and HC emissions. Concerning PM emission, a large decrease as large as 56% was attained for both test modes. The introduction of the GTL gas oil into local areas severely polluted by diesel-derived PM was expected to have a considerable effect. Moreover, the content of aromatic hydrocarbons in the test gas oil had a high correla-tion with PM emission, and it was found that a decrease in aromatic hydrocarbons in the gas oil was effective for decreasing PM emission. For PAH's emission such as benzo (a) anthracene (B (a) A), 7, 12-dimethylbenzo (a) anthracene (DB (a) A), benzo (b) fluoanthene (B (b) F), benzo (k) fluoanthene (B (k) F), benzo (a) pyrene (B (a) P), indeno (1, 2, 3-cd) pyrene (IPyr) and benzo (ghi) perylene (B (ghi) P), 75% and more of the total amounts of the all PAH emission were reduced by using GTL gas oil for both test modes, compared with the commercial gas oil. Individually, B (a) A, DB (a) A, B (b) F and B (k) F showed especially a high positive correlation with the content of aromatic hydrocarbons in the test gas oil.
The coprocessing with coal is one of the beneficial technologies to convert waste plastics into alterna-tive liquid hydrocarbon for fuel oil and chemical feedstock. The waste plastics having high H/C ratio are expected to play the role of hydrogen source. On the other hand, the waste plastics include chlorine-contain-ing plastic such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Hydrogen chloride generated from pyrolysis of PVC causes the problems such as the corrosion of equipment. In the coprocessing reaction, it is expected that the hydrogen chloride is captured by the minerals in coal. In this paper, the influence of PVC on the coprocessing with Wyoming subbituminous coal and the mixture of high density polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, and PVC was investigated under decalin solvent. A part of hydrogen chloride generated from PVC was fixed as chlorides by the minerals in coal, but the rest formed chlorinated organic compounds. These reactions occured competitively. When a sufficient amount of hydrogen chloride was not captured, the chain reactions of polymer radicals were inhibited by chlorine radical. This inhibitation resulted in the increase of heavy oil yield. To avoid it, the optimization of the raito of coal and plastics was desired.
To know the current situations on ethanol utilization, a detailed survey was made on its demand and supply in Asian countries such as Japan, China, India, Thailand, Korea, Philippine, and Pakistan. As a result, it was clarified that ethanol market has been developed and commercialized already in China and Thailand. It was found to be due to a sudden increase in the crude oil price and recent motorization progressed by an economic development, together with plentiful feedstocks available in these developing countries. In Japan, however, utilization of ethanol fuel is under consideration through the empirical car testing for targeting the practical use by 2012, while in Korea, a progress is only for testing production of ethanol from the imported grains. In India, Philippine, and Pakistan, ethanol fuel production program has just initiated recently. In China, ethanol fuel production has been developed in the north-east granary region with using maize mainly. Whereas in Thailand, ethanol fuel production has been also progressed to stimulate local economics in rural districts, and now ethanol produced mainly from molasses has been sold in a vicinity of Bangkok. In the near future, a large-scale ethanol production is being expected on the sugar cane industry basis.