It is well known that mean personal energy consumptions and the level of human life have close relation. And also it has been discussed that the rate of population growth changes in accordance with the level of human life. So mean personal energy consumption should have a certain relation with the rate of population growth. It means that the world energy demand should be calculated from the long-range prospect of population growth. In this article the method to calculate the world energy demand from the long-range prospect of population is described. Fortunately, world population have been prospected till 2150 by the international organization and the prospect of world energy demand derived from population will be calculated till the same period. And the results of calculation will be included automatically a consideration of changes of the level of human life. By this method the world total energy demand at 2125 is calculated 450-500×108 TCE.
China has more than one thousand small ammonia plants widely located over small cities. These plants are operated in good condition based on local tech-nical supports. Utilization of the exhaust gases from such ammonia plants is possible to develop a hydrogasification process to supply high calory city gas over small cities in inland China. This ammonia/ciy gas combined production would be promising for establishing clean environment and modern life style in China. This report describes the possibility of the above concept from both technical and social view points.
Single ion chromatograms obtained by GC/MS analysis were successfuly used for compositional analysis of lignin-derived and coal-derived liquids after correcting the sensitivity for a specific ion of each component. Kraft lignin and seven coals were individually liquefied at 450C for 1 hour in tetralin under an initial hydrogen pressure of 9.8 MPa. The hexane soluble products containing alkylbenzenes as internal standard were injected into GC/MS, and Naphthalenes (m/z 156, 170), acenaphthenes (m/z 168, 182), and indanols (m/z 134, 148) were determined by comparing the peak area in their single ion chromatograms with those of internal standard and correcting their sensitivities. The distribution of naphthalenes, acenaphthenes, indanols and phenols were similar for lignin-derived and seven coal-derived oils. Polycondenced aromatic structures in lignin-derived oil should be formed during a pulping process and/or liquefaction, and the structual change from monoaromatics in lignin to polycondenced rings in the product oil seemed to be similar to that in coalification process. Lignin-like structures composed of monoaromatic rings still existed in bituminous coals.
The discharge coefficient (C) of pressure nozzles can be predicted by the nozzle parameters, which are defined by their nozzle geometries. However, in-spite of using suitable nozzle parameters, the prediction of “C” is still influenced by the diameter of the swirl chamber (“di”) itself. At the case of atomization of low viscosity liquids, “C” decreases with increasing “di”. On the contrary, at the case of atomization of high viscosity liquids, “C”increase with increasing “di”. Also, it is found the transition of these tendencies occurs around the viscosity of 0.06 Pa-s. The influence of the viscosity of liquids and the spraying pressure on the “C” are arranged by the effect of the Reynolds number at the swirl chamber, which is defind by u* (di-do) /2 ρ. It is found that the change of the correlation between “C” and Reynolds number occurs around Re=2000-3000.
A commercial-scale coke oven chamber was shock-cooled during the carbonization process, the state of carbonization inside the coke oven was studied, and analyzed the pieces sampled from the oven. Authers clarified the following facts from these studies and analyses. (1) There were two distinct features about the density distribution inside lump coke obtained from the shock-cooled oven. One was the layered density distribution in the direction parallel to the oven wall. The other was the steep decrease of the density in the part from 60 to 90mm from the oven wall. (2) We could make clear the above two facts by taking into consideration the following investigations. Gas pressure in the plastic layer changed with fluctuations of gas pressure in coal layer, and the shape of bubbles in the plastic layer were deformed with these gas pressure fluctuations. (3) Depending on the layered density distribution, permeability and tensile strength of coke have different values in the directions of oven length and width respectively.