Digital image processing have the potential for estimating biomass during cultivation of microalgae in Photobioreactor (PBR). In this research, computer algorithm and non-destructive method were implemented to predict the total concentrated solid of dry microalgae. This research used the native microalgae samples from the experimental facility located at the Minamisoma city of Fukushima Prefecture in Japan. Dry microalgae (DCW) were dissolved in a predetermined concentration range up to 12 g DCW L-1 and proven to be efficiently used up to 3 g DCW L-1. Raw red, green and blue (RGB) values in biomass were extracted and converted into Grayscale (GS) images. Furthermore, GS images were compared with seven conversion methods for determining the most suitable conversion results. The GS methods were investigated: luminance, intensity, monotonic, desaturation, average, minimum decomposition and lightness grayscale methods. The GS method was used to simplify the algorithm, for increasing efficiency in analyzing images. Each GS image of microalgae biomass aimed to derive a special pattern that only each image has in accordance with its concentration. For the result, luminance GS was found the most suitable method for recognizing color pattern identifier to determine total solid concentration using the image taken from the mobile device (R2 = 0.9033).
To develop the extracted nanofibers from wasted citrus peels, the preparation of cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) from Japanese citrus peels was investigated by using pectinase and the obtained nanofibers were characterized in the morphology and other properties in this study. First, the combination of pectinase treatment and diluted alkali treatment were applied as the pretreatment for mechanical nanofibrillation of Japanese citrus peels. Second, the obtained nanofibrillated peels were characterized and compared in the surface morphology. It was relatively easy to fibrillate cellulose from the Japanese citrus inner peels subjected to pectinase compared with cellulose obtained from other materials such as woody pulp. Nanofibers derived from citrus inner peels were easier to be mixed with the oil and maintained the small-size of oil drops more easily than the CNF derived from hardwood pulp. Considering these characteristics, the nanofibrillated cellulose obtained from citrus peels using pectinase could to be applied as an emulsion stabilizer in the food and cosmetic industry.
A small-scale demonstration plant, which consists of a rotary kiln-type oven and a ring die-type pelletizer, was manufactured to produce upgraded wood fuel by torrefaction. In this study, we improved the temperature control and the pelletization methods. The oven and pelletization operations were optimized by implementing automatic temperature control of the torrefaction oven, and the use of additives in pelletization; which resulted in improvements in pellet productivity. A commercial scale image of the torrefaction plant was designed for operation in a local community. Torrefied fuel could be used for both large-scale power generation and small-scale use, such as for cooking and heating (e.g. in restaurants), in the outdoors, and during emergencies.
Foaming agents from palm oil as one example of palm oil downstream products can reduce water surface tension and create foams to be used to extinguishing fires on peatlands. This research is aimed at obtaining the best foaming agent formula from sodium laurate and potassium palmitate as the result of fatty acid saponification and finding the information on the performance of foaming agent formulas applied to extinguishing fires on peatlands at a laboratory scale. The result of the performance test on the best foaming agent formula is one using 15% sodium laurate and 3% potassium palmitate. The result of the application test shows that the addition of 3.33 wt% of foaming agents to well-sourced water yields foams that can extinguishing fires on peatlands and saves water by 9.89 wt% while giving a shorter fire-fighting time.
Since water balance is considered as a major constituent in the environmental issue for sustainability of oil palm production system, particularly as significant biomass contributor, runoff water as water loss and infiltrated water for oil palm consumption play the most significant role for the explanation of water status and should be exposed comprehensively. In case of water inefficiency in oil palm cultivation system, problem-solving solutions are to be identified and recommended. The purpose of the experiment was to approach the value of infiltrated water at smallholders oil palm plantation in Jambi at 4 gradient slopes category i.e. plain (0-5%), slight (6-10%), moderate (11-21%) and heavy slope (24-33%). The experiment was conducted at dry season from June to October 2013 in 4 replications. Water throughfall from September-October amounted to 35-39 mm from the total precipitation value of 97.1 mm. Infiltrated water from the water throughfall amounted to 32.3 mm at the slight gradient slope and 6.8 mm at the heavy gradient slope. Runoff rate at heavy gradient slope reached the value of 82.7 mm per 100 mm of total throughfall value. Canopy covering rate measured by sunlight transmission ranging from 11.9% - 13.5% had no significant effect on throughfall value at all of gradient slopes category.
This short paper aims to clarify the main factor controlling overall transesterification rate of vegetable oil (triglycerides) with methanol catalyzed by homogeneous acid catalyst. In this reaction system, methanol droplets are dispersed in oil continuous phase. Most of the catalyst is existing in methanol droplets. The authors formulated a simultaneous diffusion-reaction model by focusing on the following processes: (1) dissolving of oil into methanol droplets at the oil-methanol interface, (2) inward diffusion of oil in methanol droplets, and (3) simultaneous transesterification of oil with the inward diffusion. In order to prove this model, firstly, the intrinsic transesterification kinetics were determined in methanol/oil/2-butanone/sulfuric acid system at 298, 308, and 323 K. 2-Butanone and sulfuric acid were used as a co-solvent and a catalyst, respectively. Secondly, transesterification of oil with methanol catalyzed by sulfuric acid was carried out in ordinary two-phase system at 298, 308, and 323 K. The authors successfully simulated the two-phase reaction results from the homogeneous kinetics by applying the model developed in this paper. It was found that the overall transesterification rate is controlled by the intrinsic kinetics.
Indonesia has abundant forest biomass resource, which should not be considered as a low economic value resource. This forest biomass resource can be converted into bioenergy through various technologies and it becomes one of sources in Indonesia’s energy mix. This paper focuses on the wood processing mill residues, one type of forest biomass resources. Data were obtained from observation and survey at one of large private wood processing companies in Indonesia. An economic value of US$19.0 per ton wood residue would be created when the company sold its wood processing mill residues as fuelwoods. In contrast, using a conversion return approach, the economic value of wood residues increased to be about US$ 29.6 per ton wood residue when they were pelletized, an economic value increase of 56%. Sensitivity analysis further showed that the economic value of wood processing mill residues is more sensitive to changes in the price of wood pellets than to changes in the price of fuelwoods.
Biomass gasification is a promising technology on the improvement of a worldwide green energy system. Biomass gasification is a thermal procedure where solid fuel changed over into a valuable gas using several gasifying agents, for example, air and steam. Tar is inevitable byproduct during biomass gasification process and needs to be reduced because it will disrupt the performance of other systems. This research had done on utilizing the dryer to change the moisture content of wood pellet to an arbitrary value. This experiment inspects the impact of the water substance on woody biomass in order to know the gasification efficiency. The tar sampling with various humidity pellet feedstock will be analyzed applying Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. It was found that generally, many compounds such as acetic acid, propanoic acid, phenol, benzene, toluene, xylene and naphthalene contained in tar composition. This research indicated the rising value of moisture content had influenced effects of the gasification efficiency.
In Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand, the pile abandonment of empty fruit bunches (EFBs) in the fields of palm oil mills is a common practice. This practice results in environmental issues such as generation of unpleasant odors and methane production due to anaerobic decomposition. In the present study, an abandoned moist EFB sample from Rubber Oil Co. Limited, a palm oil mill in the Thachi sub-district municipality, Surat Thani Province, southern Thailand, was collected and sun dried for physical analysis. The bulk density at 13.2% moisture content was 0.118 kg/L. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for electricity generation and methane production due to anaerobic decomposition were compared applying life cycle assessment. A cargo capacity of 621 kg of EFBs and a 59 km distance to the Surat Thani Biomass Power Plant in Surat Thani province were adapted with reference to Thailand’s GHG emission factors. The system boundary included the EFBs in the palm oil mill and the nearest power plant. The CO2 equivalent GHG emissions per kg of EFB for the transportation, generation, and field abandonment (methane emission) were 0.077, -0.877, and 2.136 kg-CO2e, respectively; a sum of -0.8 kg-CO2e emission via electricity generation use was noted as a significant environmental advantage.