The feed-in tariff system can be another driving force to introduce biomass. The utilization of biomass in Japan is not large now, but its potential amount is 1.2 EJ/year, while world biomass availability is expected to be 200 EJ/year. Technologies are being developed for electricity generation, production of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd generation biofuel, as well as fuel gas production. In addition to these single conversion technologies, biorefinery is to be studied where biomass is fully utilized to produce both value added and common products. Latest information is introduced for each topics.
A marine cold tolerant diatom Mayamaea sp. JPCC CTDA0820 which showed high lipid content of 47% at 10°C was isolated from the coastal area of Kitakyushu city, Japan as a candidate for biodiesel production in winter in Japan. This strain can be cultured at a wide range of temperature from 5°C to 28°C. The biomass productivity and the oil productivity were 31 g/m2/day and 9.8 g/m2/day at the optimized culture conditions at 10°C, respectively. The results highly suggested that the strain JPCC CTDA0820 was appropriate for the biodiesel production in cool climates. Mayamaea sp. JPCC CTDA0820 were succeeded in outdoor mass cultivation in winter (Nov. 25- Dec. 5). With the combination of our previously reported promising biodiesel producing diatom Fistulifera solaris JPCC DA0580, the stable biodiesel production through the year can be achieved.
This paper describes the influence of distillation treatment of biodiesel fuel on fuel qualities. The distillation treatment may be used to purify crude biodiesel fuel. In this case, it is forecasted that glycerolysis reaction between fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and residual glycerin occurs at high temperature on distillation process, glycerides; mono-, di-, and tri- will be produced and these will be fractionated with FAME. And the distillation at high temperature may reduce oxidation stability of fuel, because of oxidization of FAME and elimination of natural antioxidant. In this study, the kinetic investigation by glycerolysis reaction modeling and the experimental investigation by distillation treatment for both crude and refined biodiesels were achieved.
In order to produce a bioethanol at low cost from cellulosic biomass, it is effective to increase the reduction and recovery of the enzymes. However, saccharifying enzymes such as cellulases, not only adding the enzyme does not act effectively for adsorption to lignin, the recovery rate of the enzyme is also lowered. Therefore, in order to suppress the adsorption to lignin, novel amphiphilic phospholipid polymer in enzyme reaction solution was investigated. As a result, the phospholipid polymer (PMA) that was combined with 2-Methacryloyxyethyl phosphorylcholin (MPC) and methaacylic acid (MA) improved an enzyme saccharification rate of pulverized Japanese cedar powder. Furthermore, phospholipid polymer inhibited the adsorption of enzyme to lignin. The saccharifiaction rate of pulverized Japanese cedar powder was maxim when the concentration of PMA was 0.025 g/g dry mass over. Furthermore, 0.2 (mg/ml) of protein was remained in the saccharification broth.
This study investigated the effects of hot-press pretreatment on sugar recovery from rice straw. Hot-pressed rice straw was evaluated using enzymatic hydrolysis. After hot-press pretreatment with 30% moisture at 180°C, 16 MPa, the glucose yield of hot-pressed rice straw was 73% and the density of it was 1.3 g-wet/cm3. In addition, the sugar recovery increased to 92% when the wet milling process was added before hot-pressing. Rice straw after the hot-press pretreatment can be stored for more than six months, without changing the sugar recovery rate. These results indicate that the hot-press pretreatment eliminates the need for drying the raw materials, improves the storability, reduces the volume of the rice straw, and has pretreatment effect for enzymatic hydrolysis.
The study aims to determine the suitability of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) wastes for charcoal briquette production. Three types of raw materials namely 100% tuba-tuba husk, 50% husk and 50% pressed cake, and 100% pressed cake were carbonized using FPRDI carbonizer. The carbonized materials were bonded with cassava and corn starch as binders at different binder level of 10%, 14% and 18% based on the weight of feedstock to form charcoal briquettes. Sample briquettes were evaluated based on their charcoal yield, crushing strength, proximate analysis, and heating values. Variation of treatment means for VM, Ash content, fixed carbon crushing strength and heating values was highly significant. Briquettes from pressed cake bonded with either cassava or corn starch at 10%, 14%, and 18% was found to be superior among other materials tested. The 50% J. husk and 50% P. cake also showed promising results, but its quality may not be as good as that of pressed cake. The husk however, did not conform to the standards set by Philippine Standard Association (PHILSA), due to its high VM, and ash content. Based on the five properties, 10% binder using pressed cake produced good Jatropha charcoal briquette.
A modified drum-type carbonizer was fabricated for the carbonization of young coconut waste. The major modification made was increasing the number of air inlets from four inlets per layer to eight inlets per layer, for three layers. Three tests were made by adjusting the number of air inlets opened. Water boiling test was performed using the three charred samples from the three tests. The first test had eight inlets opened, the second test had six, and the last test had five. The actual recovery and efficiency of the carbonizer were computed based on the data obtained. Observations were made on the charcoal produced and then it was subjected to water boiling test to determine its quality based on the stove’s efficiency. The modified version produced higher amount of charcoal and low amount of uncharred young coconut waste than the original. It was also more efficient in producing young coconut waste charcoal. The original design took a longer time of carbonization operation. Results showed that the carbonizer with 8 air openings obtained the highest actual charcoal recovery of 33.13% and highest efficiency of 64.8% in the carbonization process. The water boiling test showed that the average thermal efficiency of the stove is 19.32% and comparable with the thermal efficiency of the same stove using wood charcoal of 20%. It means that the quality of charred young coconut waste is comparable to wood charcoal.
A project was implemented in India to promote conversion of waste agricultural biomass into energy in partnership with Birla Institute of Management Technology. Several capacity building and awareness raising workshops were carried out. The topics covered in these workshops included: assessment of waste agricultural biomass; technologies; methodology for sustainability assessment of technologies; and policies. In India, 415.546 Tg (415.546 million t) of waste agricultural biomass is generated annually equivalent to 103.88 Tg of oil of which 101.88 Tg (equivalent to 25.47 Tg of oil) is estimated to be surplus. The technology demonstration was carried out at M/s Starlit Power Systems Ltd. Sohna, Haryana, which is a lead recycling company. It was decided to replace the diesel oil firing system with syngas produced from a biomass gasifier. A 540 kW (thermal) gasifier installed which led to a saving of 440,000 L/year of diesel and thus avoided 1,160 t/year of GHG emissions. The company invested US$ 160,000 but the savings amounted to US $ 400,000 thus the investment was paid back in just 5 months. A national strategy for enhancing conversion of waste agricultural biomass into energy was developed. A sub-regional workshop was organized to share the results achieved and lessons learnt.
This paper investigated a solar spectrum estimation method based on the SMARTS2 code and the specific impact of input parameters i.e. turbidity and precipitable water vapor (PWV) on the estimation. The turbidity measured by the filter type spectroradiometer called skyradiometer was used for increasing the estimation accuracy. The results of three different estimation methods for obtaining PWV from GPS sensor, skyradiometer and conventional humidity measurement were compared. The estimated solar spectrum was verified by grating type spectroradiometer and conventional instruments. As a consequence, each parameter set was sufficient to estimate solar spectrum, especially, the parameter set consisted of the turbidity from skyradiometer and the PWV from conventional humidity measurement was the most accurate.
Considering its advantages including reduction of cooling cost and saving water during the fermentation process, which consequently cut down the total running cost, high-temperature fermentation with thermotolerant microbes is expected to be one of next-generation fermentation technologies. We focused on the establishment of high-temperature fermentation technology for ethanol production from biomass in Thailand, for which thermotolerant microbes suitable for various types of biomass were selected and advanced fermentation processes including a temperature-uncontrolled fermentation and a simultaneous fermentation and distillation under a low pressure were investigated.
The paper illustrates a project carried out - between 2012 and 2013 – during which the first eni solar/fossil hybrid power plant – without any grid connection and energy storage systems - has been designed, built, started up and successfully operated - in Egyptian Western Desert - over more than 8000 hours. The purpose of the project was to enhance the efficiency of oil production operation by integrating solar with diesel fuelled power production. A patented Power Management Module (PMS) optimizes power flows among the components of the plant, namely Photovoltaic (PV) panels, Diesel Generator (DG) and sucker rods electric engines. The plant has demonstrated reliability in hostile conditions and capability to save diesel fuel and reduce CO2 emissions up to 12%. Further optimizations have also been identified, in order to enhance the performance of the whole system.
Low rank coals are susceptible to spontaneous combustion, because oxidation rate of low rank coals are higher than that of high rank coals. Low rank coals, however, must be heated over a critical temperature of around 70°C before spontaneous combustion starts. The mechanism by which the coals are heated over the critical temperature has not been completely elucidated. This note focused on the adsorption of water vapor as a possible mechanism of the temperature increase. When three kinds of brown coals/lignites pre-dried at 80°C in an inert atmosphere and cooled to 28°C were exposed to an ambient and stagnant atmosphere of 28°C with 70% of relative humidity, the coal temperatures increased up to 40 to 43°C in a minute or so. When the coals predried and cooled to 38°C were exposed to an stagnant atmosphere saturated with water vapor at 38°C , the coal temperatures increased up to over 60°C in a minute or so. These results showed that the rapid adsorption of water vapor will be a cause of temperature increase leading to the spontaneous combustion of low rank coals.
Journal of the Japan Institute of Energy, October 2015 (Volume 94, Number 10)Guest editors for Special articles: BiomassKinya SAKANISHI (National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology)Yutaka NAKASHIMADA (Hiroshima University)Takahiro YOSHIDA (The Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute)