The current study investigated the effects of different types of Kenyan tea extracts on the pathogenesis of
Trypanosoma brucei brucei in a Swiss White mice model. Following infection with trypanosomes, the mice
were monitored for survival and liver pathology. Tea significantly (P<0.05) enhanced the survival rate of tea
treated mice. Additionally, in tea treated but infected mice, there was reduction in infiltration of inflammatory
cells into the periportal and parenchymal regions as well as hepatocyte cell damage compared to the infected
untreated animals. Green and white teas were superior in most of the above effects while black tea and oolong
teas had the least effects. The tea extracts were more efficacious than dexamethasone in prolonging the life of
infected animals. It is concluded tea can act as adjunct therapeutic agent in treatment of diseases having hepatic
inflammation, including trypanosomiasis.
A study was carried out to assess the effect of mixed infection of Trypanosoma vivax and Fasciola spp. in an
intensively managed dairy farm. Twenty lactating Friesian cows were screened, 25% (5/20) had concurrent
infections of T. vivax and Fasciola spp., while 20% (4/20) had mixed infections of T. vivax and strongyle
infection, 15% (3/20) had mixed infections of Theileria mutans and strongyle infection. Only 10% (2/20)
has single infection of T. vivax and T. mutans respectively. Anemia, submandibular edema, reduce milk
production emaciation and epiphora are the major clinical signs presented by the animals.
A molecular epidemiological survey on Theileria orientalis was conducted in a cattle population of Fujian province in China. The screening polymerase chain reaction assay showed that 23 (45%) of 51 blood samples were positive for T. orientalis. DNA sequencing of the major piroplasm surface antigen-encoding gene indicated the presence of 3 different genotypes in the study area(types 1，2，and 5) and identified T. orientalis types 1 and 2 as the major genotypes in the sample population. Because type 2 (Ikeda type in Japan) has been recognized as a relatively virulent genotype of T. orientalis，control and preventive measures to minimize the incidence of infectious diseases among cattle bred in China are necessary.
Development and spread of chloroquine (CQ) resistance led to its withdrawal in most malaria endemic countries.
In Kenya, this occurred in 1998 when clinical efficacy dropped below 50%. Less than a decade after CQ was
removed from routine use in Malawi, the drug has reversed to activity and is again effective for first-line
treatment of uncomplicated malaria. There is a probability of a similar reversed activity in Kenya for more 10
years of its absence in uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria treatment. The present study was aimed
at establishing the CQ resistance status in the country, 10 years after its withdrawal, by looking at high malaria
transmission zone, Mbita, a malaria endemic area and some malaria epidemic areas of the Kenyan highlands.
The prevalence of T76 and Y86 P. falciparum molecular markers for CQ resistance in Pfcrt and Pfmdr1 genes
were investigated by PCR-RFLP and dot blot analysis in 64 samples collected in March to May 2007 in the
endemic area and 38 samples collected in April to July the same year in the epidemics. The study shows that
67.3% of field isolates from the endemic site still harbor Y86 mutation in Pfmdr1 while 32.7% have the wild
type allele N86 compared to the 94% and 6 % prevalence observed in Mwea, an endemic area, in 2004 (χ
P=0.00015, 95% CI=2.085-27.8). In the epidemics 75% of field isolates from the epidemic sites still harbor Y86
mutation in Pfmdr1 while 25% have the wild type allele N86 compared to the 91.6% and 8.4% prevalence
observed in an epidemic area in 1997 (χ
=1.585, P=0.208, 95% CI=0.701-19.176). From the study there is a
significant change in the proportions of the resistant genotypes in the endemic areas while in the epidemics, there
was also a noticeable shift though not significant. This therefore indicates a slow but steady re-emergence of P.
falciparum CQ sensitive strains in the country. Though does not warrant the reintroduction of CQ for malaria