A study was conducted in 24 gilts to determine the effect of Trypanosoma brucei infection on their
reproductive efficiency. The infected gilts developed clinical trypanosomosis following a prepatent period
of 2-3 days with 1.8 x 106 trypanosomes per gilt. The clinical signs were observed intermittent fever, pale
mucus membranes, short moist cough, moist rales, mucopurulent ocular discharges and hyperemia of the
skin, reduced feed intake, and loss of body condition, recumbency, uncoordinated movements, posterior
paresis and death of gilts. The cause of death in the pigs was pneumonia caused by Escherichia coli.
Grossly, the lungs were severely congested and had undergone gray hepatization. Histopathologically, the
lungs had thickened and congested alveolar walls, and were infiltrated by mononuclear cells which were
noticed more in the lung parenchyma. The role of secondary bacterial infection in the pneumonia observed,
orchestrated by immunosuppression, which is a classical attribute of trypanosome infection is discussed.
High rise of temperature (41.3 ℃), hemoglobinurea, anorexia, decrease milk production, anemia and
diarrhea were observed in a cross-bred cow of aged 4 years, maintained in the dairy farm of ICAR research
complex for North Eastern Hill Region, Umiam, Meghalaya, India, in its 3 months of lactation. After
examination of Giemsa stained blood smears and molecular diagnosis using polymerase chain reaction, the
disease was diagnosed as babesiosis caused by Babesia bigemina. The animal was treated successfully with
a single injection of 4,4' diamidine diazoamine benzene diaceturate in recommended dose. No parasite was
detected by examination of Giemsa stained blood smears after a period of 48 hours post treatment onwards.
A total loss of 51.6 liter milk production and an economic loss of Rs.1032.00 due to decreased milk
production were calculated for a period of 30 days, from this clinical case of babesiosis caused by natural B.
bigemina in a cross-bred cow. This may be considered as first report
The aim of the present study was to develop an immunochromatographic test (ICT) for the diagnosis of
African trypanosomosis by using recombinant ribosomal P0 protein. The P0 C-terminal domain is highly
antigenic and considered to be a major target of the antibody response in infected animals. Entire gene
encoding the P0 protein was cloned, and expressed in Escherichia coli as a histidine-tagged recombinant
protein (rP0). The rP0 was further purified by using nickel affinity chromatography under denaturing
conditions. The rP0 was employed as a capture antigen in order to detect anti-P0 antibody in infected
animal sera. Antigen-antibody reaction was detected by either colloidal-gold conjugated protein A or G.
The results showed that colloidal gold-conjugated protein A and G were suitable for buffalo and cattle serum
samples respectively. The rP0-ICT can detect specific antibody in 12,800-fold dilution serum. All sera
from cattle or mouse infected with other protozoan parasites, such as Toxoplasma and Babesia, showed
negative results. Field samples (150 serum samples from Uganda) were examined by rP0-ICT and
rP0-ELISA showed that the positive rate is 48% (72/150) and 50% (75/150), respectively. The high
agreement indicated that the rP0-ICT is reliable. This suggests that the rP0-based ICT can be used as a
rapid on-site diagnostic method of salivarian trypanosomosis.