A parasitological and serological study of goats was conducted in May, 1993 in Baringo District, Kenya, to determine the presence of Leishmania parasites and circulating Leishmania-specific IgG antibodies. A total of 102 goats were sampled for the presence of natural infections with Leishmania parasites at six different households. Venous blood and bone marrow samples, and saline aspirates from lymph node and sub-cutaneous tissues were drawn from each animal and cultured in NNN diphasic media in the laboratory. In addition, sera from goats and 23 human occupants of the households were assayed for the presence of L. donovani-specific and L. major-specific IgG antibodies, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). No flagellate protozoans were cultured from the samples. However, L. donovani-specific IgG antibodies were detected from two goats (2.0%) and six humans (26.1%). These data indicate that domestic goats are exposed to Leishmania parasites and produce detectable antibody responses. However, this is viewed as an accidental infection that does not develop into active disease. Our data does not support the implication that goats are potential reservoirs for human leishmaniasis.
An immunocytochemical streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase complex technique (SBC) has been developed for the serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis and the overall reliability of the developed technique was evaluated by comparing the results with that of immunofluorescent assay (IFA) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). These were good agreement between qualitative results on all tests (kappa analysis, k=0.87 for SBC and ELISA; k＝0.87 for IFA and ELISA). Pearson correlation analysis revealed a good correlation in quantitative results on all tests as well (r＝0.714 and p＜0.001 for SBC and ELISA ; r＝0.683 and p＜0.001 for IFA and ELISA ; r＝0.775 and p＜0.001 for SBC and lFA). The SBC is easy to perform under limited laboratory facilities and under field conditions, thus it is likely to be another tool for routine diagnosis and field survey of Toxoplasma infections that is both sensitive and effective.
The influence of age on prevalence of giardiasis was investigated. Total of 8,460 feces samples were examined. The patients were at the age between 5 and 85. Giardiasis was detected in 134 persons, the higher number of infected being at the age of 41-45 years (20.15%). At the age between 21 and 40 years, as well as between 46 and 70 the prevalence of giardiasis was similar, and was estimated as moderate. In all the other age groups there were significantly less infected persons.
In families whose one member was positive to giardiasis, the positive results were also recorded among other members of family.
The obtained results indicate that giardiasis is the most common intestinal protozoan parasites of human in Serbia.
The micronucleus in Balantidium coli trophozoites contains no nucleoli. The micronucleus in the electron micrographs was seen to occur close to the macronucleus. The macronucleus of a B. coli trophozoites at the interphase consists of spherical nucleoli, 20 to 40 in a cross-section, irregularly distributed among chromatin aggregates. The number of nucleoli in the macronucleus of B. coli trophozoites, isolated from the rectum contents of acute balantidiasis-affected pigs have been higher than from pigs with asymptomatic balantidiasis.
A method for purifying merozoites of Babesia caballi was developed. Infected erythrocytes prepared from in vitro culture was enriched to at least 60% by Percoll-gradient centrifugation. Enriched infected erythrocytes were lysed with 0.83% ammonium chloride and then the lysate was subjected to centrifugation in a Percoll density gradient. Free merozoites were recovered from a band formed at the interface of 1.018 and 1.053 g/ml Percoll solutions. These merozoites were revealed to be morphologically intact by the electron microscopic observation. The merozoites were not contaminated with erythrocyte membrane protein as detected by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.