Presence of trypanosomes were determined using thick and thin blood smears, and differential centrifugation by the microhematocrit technique. Some hematological parameters were obtained by capillary microhematocrit centrifugation, Sahli and hemocytometer methods in blood samples collected from 100 camels in Sokoto, Nigeria. Fourteen percent of camels were infected with Trypanosoma evansi. The mean values for packed cell volume, concentration of hemoglobin and total red blood cell count were relatively lower in T. evansi-infected camels, even though these were not statistically significant. A slightly higher but not significant white blood cell counts were observed in the T. evansi-infected camels. The mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration was significantly lower in T. evansi-infected camels. However, there was no significant variation in the mean cell volume between the groups.
Survey was undertaken on 307 blood samples at Qassim region, revealed that 235 (76.5%) and 3 (0.98%) of cattle were infected with Theileria annulata and Anaplasma marginale respectively. T. annulata was the prevalent blood parasites among cattle while A. marginale was scarcely encountered. The monthly incidence of T. annulata ranged between 38.5% in March to 94.7% in October. Also the infection rate reached to the maximum (84.3%) in autumn and summer seasons, while it was drop off to minimum (59.4%) in spring season. It has been found that there was no significance difference between both infection rates of the laboratory and abattoir collected samples. However, the intensity of parasite was differ between the two groups.
Dynamics of the glycogen content changes in the reference to the histopathological changes of the liver in the course of experimental babesiosis in mice was studied on days: 7, 14 and 28 post infection. On days 7 and 14 post infection an increase in the Kupffer cell activity, lymphocyte infiltrations, liquefactive necrosis, and liver hyperemia were recorded. On day 14 post infection hemorrhagic ecchymoses – resulting from endothelial damage (mainly sinusoidal vessels) and causing fragmentation of the parenchyma - were observed. Those changes were intensified on day 28 post infection. From day 14 post infection on, a continuous decrease of glycogen content was observed. The weakest PAS reaction occurred in the mouse liver on day 28 post infection.
The activity and localization of the oxidative enzymes - succinate dehydrogenase, cytochrome c oxidase and antioxidative enzymes - catalase and peroxidase waws assessed using histochemical methods, in the liver of mice in the course of acute (7 dpi) and chronic (14 and 28 dpi) phase of infection with Babesia microti. The acquired results indicate that the balance of the processes catalyzed by the enzymes studied in the experimental babesiosis has been upset, which may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of this infection.
Human cerebral malaria is caused by a protozoan parasite with no cure till date. The isolation of brain capillaries i.e. microvessels has permitted the in vitro study related to cerebral function. Microvessels were isolated from normal and Plasmodium yoelii infected mice brain cortex and were subjected to biochemical characterization by the following enzyme markers viz. Alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase and monoamine oxidase and electron microscopically. Limited studies have been carried out in relation to drug metabolizing enzymes in cerebral microvessels of rodents. The present studies have been carried out in relation to status of drug metabolizing enzymes during P. yoelii infection in cerebral microvessels of mice. The data obtained depicted a clear cut impairment of cytochrome P450 (a terminal monoxygenase) and related indices viz. b5, benzopyrene hydroxylase, aminopyrine-n-demethylase, aniline hydroxylase except NADH cytochrome c reductase which increased during P. yoelii infection in mice as compared to normal. Further the oral drug administration (arteether) treatment brought back the altered MFO system to almost normal a week after cessation of drug treatment.