At present no clinical surveys concerning equine babesiosis in Japan have been reported. A total of 494 horse serum samples (439 domestic horses and 55 imported) were collected from Kyushu and Hokkaido, Japan. Indirect fIuorescent antibody test (IFAT) of the serum samples did not show any positive reactions in 1:80 serum dilution. However, 3 of the 19 trace or false-positive (±) cases were observed to be pseudo-positives (±~+). These had a weak and sharp fluorescence around the parasite of B. equi and/or B. caballi. Based from the results of this study, further investigations should be undertaken until the accurate diagnostic method in in vitro culture system can be established in Japan.
A malariometric study was carried out in two high altitude sites, Mumias and Malava, in Kakamega district. Mumias supports large sugarcane plantations while Malava is forested with mainly subsistence farming being practised. The prevalence of malaria infection among children was high and showed seasonal variation in both study sites. In Mumias, parasite rates peaked up at 58.3% in the wet season while in Malava a 48,3% parasite rate was recorded in the same season. The values for the corresponding dry season in Mumias and Malava were 43.0% and 32.0％ respectively. Parasite rates were highest in the 5-9 years age group (range 40.6％-69.4%). However, the highest parasite densities were recorded in the younger children 3-12 months old. Significant variation in parasite densities between age groups was evident. The predominant species, Plasmodium falciparum, was present in 85.4% of all positive slides, P. malariae in 5.5％ and 9.1% of the slides had both Plasmodium species. Plasmodium ovale and P. vivax were not present among the positive cases recorded. Gametocytes were present in 15.6％ of the slides examined. No significant seasonal variation in gametocyte rates was observed in both study sites. The present study shows that the level of malaria infection is high and occurs year round in the high altitude sites in western Kenya. Control measures and improvements in the availability of basic health facilities and services should therefore be offered much needed attention in order to alleviate the problem of malaria in this region.
Comparative study on hepatic oxidative stress and antioxidant defense systems of mice infected with chloroquine-resistant (CQ-R) or chloroquine-sensitive (CQ-S) Plasmodium berghei K173 strain revealed that P. berghei CQ-S strain infection makes the mice more vulnerable to oxidative damage as compared to P. berghei. CQ-R strain infection. The levels of superoxide, lipid peroxidation, glutathione and xanthine-oxidase were significantly increased while, superoxide-dismutase and catalase showed a marked decrease during CQ-S P. berghei infection when compared to CQ-R P, berghei- infected host.
ln this paper we are first presenting the results of transmission electron microscopy study of endogenous development (merogony and gamogony) of Eimeria procera in partridges (Perdix perdlx) together with duration of merogony and gamogony.