Two hundred and three (203) blood samples were collected from randomly selected herd comprising; cattle,
68 (33.5%), sheep 57 (28.1%), goats 16 (7.9%), donkey, 3 (1.5%) and pigs 59 (29.1%) respectively. The
blood samples were collected from animals and examined in seven villages from two districts (Filiya and
Lapan) of Shongom Local Government Area. These total numbers of 203 comprises 47 (23.2%) males and
156 (76.8%) females. From the males, 15 (31.9%) were cattle, 11 (23.4%) sheep, 5 (10.6%) goats, 0 (0.0%)
donkey and 16 (34.0%) boar while the females consist of 53 (34.0%) cattle, 46 (29.5%) sheep, 11 (7.1%)
goats, 3 (1.9%) donkeys and 43 (27.6%) sow. The blood samples from these animals were analysed using a
combination of thin and thick blood films and concentration methods. Eleven (5.42%) were found to be
positive for hemoparasites. These comprise. Trypanosoma vivax 1 (9.1%), Microfilariae 1 (9.1%), Babesia 8
(72.7%) and 1 (9.1%) Anaplasma. The average packed cell volume (PCV) for infected and non infected
males were 33.1 ±3.3 and 33.4 ±1.5 while that of females 31.5 ±5.1 and 31.9 ±0.8 respectively. Babesia
spp were find to be higher in prevalence 8 (72.7%) while T. vivax, Microfilariae and Anaplasma accounts for
least occurrence 1 (9.1%) each. This indicates high prevalence rate of ticks (vector of babesiosis) and
absence of Glossina spp biological transmitters of zoonotic trypanosomiasis in the study area.
The susceptibility of the West African dwarf goats to experimental Cowdria ruminantium infection was
studied over a period of 9 weeks using 10 infected and 4 control animals. All the 10 goats reacted to
intravenous inoculation of C. ruminantium infected blood. Two died hyperacutely 12 days post infection (pi)
with rectal temperature of 41.0 ±5℃
as the main clinical sign presented, 3 died 15 days pi exhibiting various
clinical signs, the remaining 5 recovered from the infection after maintaining high rectal temperature (41℃±
0.5) for 8 - 9 days.
The study shows that West African Dwarf goats are highly susceptible to experimental Cowdria
Fecal samples collected from 8 groups of caged orangutans (Pongo spp.) kept at Avilon Zoo in Montalban,
Rizal were examined using formalin ether concentration and Danish bilharziasis sieving techniques.
Hookworm and Ascaris sp. eggs, and numerous mature cysts of Entamoeba coli were identified in
orangutans housed in two separate cages and in single female kept in another cage, respectively.
The efficacy of Triladyl®, a commercial cryomedium for bull semen, in the cryopreservation of both human
and animal infective trypanosomes as compared to EDTA Saline Glucose (ESG) 10% glycerol was evaluated
in the current study. Cryopreserved Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, T. evansi, T. b. brucei and T.
congolense were first propagated in irradiated mice. At the peak of parasitemia, parasites were harvested by
cardiac puncture and 106
and 10 dilutions made using whole blood bled from clean mice.
These dilutions were divided into two equal portions of 0.5 ml each and cryopreserved in both ESG 10%
glycerol and neat Triladly®. The procedure was also repeated with T. congolense and T. vivax species of
trypanosomes directly isolated from naturally infected cattle. After 1 month of cryopreservation, 0.4 ml each
portion of this dilution was injected intraperitonially into irradiated Swiss white mice. Results on pre-patent
period (ppp) and progression of parasitemia showed no difference in the recovery of samples cryopreserved
using the 2 media. However, mice injected with T. b. brucei cryopreserved in the 2 media showed highly
significantly (p < 0.01 by t-test) lower ppp when compared to the other species of trypanosomes which had
no significant difference. However, the ppp in mice injected with trypanosomes cryopreserved in ESG 10%
glycerol was significantly lower (p < 0.05 by t-test) when compared to those cryopreserved in Triladyl®.
The interaction between media and species was highly significant indicating therefore that the difference in
cryopreservation between the two media varies from one species of trypanosome to the other. The
interaction between dose and species was also highly significant (p < 0.01 by t-test) implying therefore that
the effect of the inoculum dose varied from one species to the other leading to the conclusion therefore that
although Triladyl® appears as good a cryopreservative medium as ESG 10% glycerol, the choice will be
determined by the species of trypanosome.