Journal of Japan Society of Civil Engineers, Ser. G (Environmental Research)
Online ISSN : 2185-6648
ISSN-L : 2185-6648
Volume 72 , Issue 6
Showing 1-37 articles out of 37 articles from the selected issue
Journal of Environmental Systems Research, Vol.44
  • Hiroshi YOSHINAGA, Keiko OHKOUCHI, Keiichi HASEGAWA, Ryuji INOUE
    2016 Volume 72 Issue 6 Pages II_1-II_8
    Published: 2016
    Released: April 10, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     Road traffic noise attenuation due to roadside greenbelt can be estimated from existing knowledge on attenuation due to the ground. However, attenuation due to tree groves—described here as tree attenuation (Awoods)—in greenbelt cannot be estimated, as well-established knowledge on Awoods is not available. There are two difficulties in obtaining accurate knowledge. First, many of the Awoods measured in previous research include attenuation due to the ground etc. Second, the scales differ depending on the measurements. Taking the difficulties into account, well-planned measurements and analysis at a park and three road sides have been carried out in this paper. The measurements at the park were planned to exclude attenuation from diffraction or the ground. Pink noise emitted by a nondirectional semi-spherical speeker was measured and converted to average spectra data of road traffic noise. However, to exclude entirely such attenuation for roadside measurements is impossible. Thus, the equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure levels measured at the roadsides, LAeq, were analyzed by calculating and excluding some attenuation resulting from diffraction around the greenbelt, the ground, and atmospheric absorption.
     The results are as follows: Awoods estimated by the test sounds was -0.23 dB/m and -0.17 dB/m. Awoods estimated by the LAeq measured at the roadsides was -0.12 dB/m, -0.10 dB/m, and -0.04 dB/m. The Awoods measured in the previous research were also converted to the same scale values by calculating and excluding some attenuation due to the ground etc. The Awoods in this paper were intermediate values in comparison with plural references.
     As the data is not sufficient, the values are not certain, but taking account of noise reduction by tree groves in greenbelt will be practical in the future if a sufficient number of measurements can be carried out.
    Download PDF (1826K)
  • Makiko OBANA, Ryo HIDAKA, Yuji TODA, Tetsuro TSUJIMOTO
    2016 Volume 72 Issue 6 Pages II_9-II_14
    Published: 2016
    Released: April 10, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     In recent, the conservation and adjustment of sandbar landscape is pointed out as the goal of river environmental management. This study is focused on the denitrification of sand bar driven by subsurface water flow in aim to the quantification of water purification function in a river. Denitrification in the sand bar is mainly influenced by advection of subsurface water flow and reaction of microorganism according to the soil and environmental condition (potential) of each site. We proposed the new method for quantify the denitrification potential based on the field observation result which include morphological and hydronic parameters. An empirical formula which quantifies the potential according to landscape elements in sand bar was created by using the field data. Furthermore, it has become possible to compare the denitrification potential of each river by using our new method.
    Download PDF (787K)
  • Shogo HARIYA, Kazuei ISHII, Masahiro SATO, Atsushi FUJIYAMA, Toru FURU ...
    2016 Volume 72 Issue 6 Pages II_15-II_21
    Published: 2016
    Released: April 10, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     Energy utilization of rice straw with annual generation of about 9 millon ton has been required. Continuous combustion of rice straw pellets for a long time is difficult in household wood pellet stoves, which has been becoming popular, because the large amount of ash after combustion inhibits the continuous combustion easily. This study attempted to clarify a reason of the combustion inihibition and to investigate a possibility to use wood pellets mixed with rice straw for household wood pellet stoves. As a result, combustion inhibition was caused not by a clinker formation, but by accumulation of large-particle ash with the small bulk density. The volume of accumulated ash in case of wood pellets mixed with rice straw was smaller than that in case of co-combution of wood pellets and rice straw pellets with the same ratio of rice straw to woods. In addition, when the mixiture ratio of rice straw to woods was 10%, the wood pellets mixed with rice straw was burned continuously for a loger time than rice straw pellets, whose compostion was 100% rice straw.
    Download PDF (1152K)
  • Mineo TSURUMAKI, Ari KUBO, Yugo YAMAMOTO, Noboru YOSHIDA
    2016 Volume 72 Issue 6 Pages II_23-II_34
    Published: 2016
    Released: April 10, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     The difficulty of managing infrastructures is increasing in the local region which faces the problems of low birthrate and aging and depopulation. In addition, the efficient management of infrastructures are needed because of the necessity of creating low-carbon society and economical reasonableness. In this study, greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction was considered applying cooperation treatment of domestic waste water and combustible waste which are currently operated as other systems. The proposal system can be applied into the regions which were mentioned before. Methane fermentation of combustible waste, treatment of removal water of fermentation, incineration of fermentation residue and sludge from waste water treatment were incorporated as cooperation treatment. This study ensured that 40% reduction of GHG was possible and the cooperation treatment was effective.
    Download PDF (3521K)
  • Shigenori IINO, Yasuhiro ARAI, Toyono INAKAZU, Akira KOIZUMI
    2016 Volume 72 Issue 6 Pages II_35-II_44
    Published: 2016
    Released: April 10, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     In order to contribute to the survival of the general waste final disposal site, this study examined system optimization of the cement recycling of waste incineration main ash in metropolis. First, this research estimated the main ash acceptable amount to the existing cement plant taking into account the chemical composition of cement raw materials. Then, this article proposed planning model in the case of recycling main ash to cement resources of the existing cement plant and new eco-cement one. As a result of the model analysis, the transport to the existing cement plant by truck and coastal transport was mainly carried out, and eco-cement plant by a single municipality was not built. This paper considered the cooperative processing with the other prefectures as an eco-cement plant of the next generation type, and carried out cost-benefit analysis with the existing plant. As a result, it was suggested that we should consider the cooperative processing of eco-cement plant with other local government in the early stage, rather than increase the treatment amount in the existing cement gradually.
    Download PDF (1300K)
  • Toyohiko NAKAKUBO, Midori KOBAYASHI
    2016 Volume 72 Issue 6 Pages II_45-II_56
    Published: 2016
    Released: April 10, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     In this study, we categorized nine designated areas for regional waste management in Gunma prefecture into two types: area applied to boiler-turbin generator in a waste incineration plant (WIP), and area applied to dry digestion in a WIP. We selected Ohta-Tatebayashi as the former area, and did Agatsuma as the latter area. In Ohta-Tatebayashi, dewatered sludge is dried by useable portion of the steam heat, and then dried sludge is combusted in WIPs under the collaborative plan. In Agatsuma, several sludges, food waste and waste paper are digested in a WIP or a sewerage treatment plant under the collaborative plan. The results showed that GHG emissions were reduced by 13% in Ohta-Tatebayashi and 15% in Agatsuma by introducing the collaborative plan in comparison with the individual non-collaborative plan for each.
    Download PDF (995K)
  • Takuya OKUDA, Akifumi NAKAO, Yugo YAMAMOTO, Tohohiko NAKAKUBO, Noboru ...
    2016 Volume 72 Issue 6 Pages II_57-II_66
    Published: 2016
    Released: April 10, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     This study aims to clarify the effects of GHG reduction by utilizing various sewage sludge fuels based on collaboration among sewage, industrial, and environmental infrastructures. As a result, the followings are observed: a) a low mixed combustion ratio causes limited GHG reduction in pulp industry, and it is important to take balances of regional sludge fuel and industrial fuel demand into account corresponding to industries; b) GHG inventory are compared for various sludge fuel utilization technologies based on reference materials, and adjacent of sewage and garbage incineration plants to reduce GHG caused by transportation of dewatered sludge; c) collaboration of sewage, industry and environmental infractructures can reduce 679 thousand tons of carbon dioxide per year, which is given by 85% of un-utilized sewage sludge; d)increase of mixed combustion ratio in pulp industry give great GHG reduction effects.
    Download PDF (1309K)
  • Yutaro MATSUDA, Akifumi NAKAO, Yugo YAMAMOTO, Noboru YOSHIDA
    2016 Volume 72 Issue 6 Pages II_67-II_78
    Published: 2016
    Released: April 10, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     In this research, we estimated the potential of demand and supply in sewage sludge fuelization system utilizing a cement production infrastructure in Hyogo coastal region between 2010 and 2040. We also estimated GHG emissions through the introduction of this system. From the analysis, we reached the following conclusions; 1) In all scenarios for economic growth of cement industry (high, low and medium growth scenario) based on the prediction in the previous research, the cement production infrastructure could accept carbonized sewage sludge from 5 sewage sludge treatment facilities at a co-firing ratio of 10% (carbonized sewage sludge/coal). 2) In high economic growth scenario, the co-firing ratio of 10% could make cement production infrastructure accept carbonized sewage sludge produced at 6 sewage sludge treatment facilities. 3) The sewage sludge carbonization system in collaboration with the cement production infrastructure could reduce GHG emissions by up to 125.4% between 2015 and 2040.
    Download PDF (1923K)
  • Morimasa TSUDA, Yoichi IWAMI
    2016 Volume 72 Issue 6 Pages II_79-II_85
    Published: 2016
    Released: April 10, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     Considering the changes in household water consumption characeristics such as water saving appliances and water reuse is important for designing long term water resources management plan and reservoir operation during drought period. This paper suggested estimating method of daily household water consumption during water supply restrictions using metered water consumption, which is total of water consumption for several months. Temporal disaggregation technique was applied to the estimation. Because date of metering are different between households, quantitative analysis on water consumption during water supply restrictions using metered water consumption data was difficult. However it is easily conducted by using estimated daily water consumption by this method.
    Download PDF (918K)
  • Masahiro ISHIKAWA, Keisuke MATSUHASHI, Toshinori ARIGA
    2016 Volume 72 Issue 6 Pages II_87-II_94
    Published: 2016
    Released: April 10, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     To promote global warming countermeasures in Japan, it is necessary to design an evaluation technique for the energy policy on block unit scale. Building point data has the potential to fulfill this requirement. However, building point data must be used correctly because it tends to exaggerate the estimate of the total floor area. This study aims to estimate the energy consumption of the consumer sector using the bottom-up approach through total floor space correction and vacancy rates consideration on building point data. The results of the study, estimates of the energy consumption of the prefectures, and ordinance-designated cities confirmed that a high reproducibility compared with the statistics can be obtained. In addition, we consider the applicability of this technique in the municipalities and propose it as supporting material for the action plans for global warming countermeasures of local governments.
    Download PDF (875K)
  • Kumiko NAKAMICHI, Shinya HANAOKA, Jianxin GUAN
    2016 Volume 72 Issue 6 Pages II_95-II_106
    Published: 2016
    Released: April 10, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     The CO2 emissions of China exceeded America in 2005. Since then, China became the top and takes 20% of the CO2 emission in the whole world. Since China has a vast territory and differences in different provinces, when discussing the solution of reducing the CO2 emission, it is essential to take the effect of supply chain's upstream of industry and downstream which is including household expenditures, population and urbanization into account. Therefore the direct emission and embodied emissions based on household expenditures are important. The objectives of this study are to estimate the direct and embodied emission in the province levels, urban and rural separately and to take the emission intensity affected by economic development and policy, household expenditures, population and urbanization rate into account to estimate the future embodied emission of each provinces. Consequently, it turns out that the CO2 emissions will be increased by the regional development policy, urbanization, and the change of household consumption. On the other hand, it will be decreased by the improvement of the indirect emission intensity in the upstream of supply chain.
    Download PDF (1491K)
  • He CHEN, Mamoru TANIGUCHI
    2016 Volume 72 Issue 6 Pages II_107-II_118
    Published: 2016
    Released: April 10, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     Because decentralization is progressing, local governments and residents should take mutually cooperative actions to achieve an accurate resolution of global environment is-sues. A new system considering individual consciousness is necessary, providing incen-tives both to governments and residents to improve environmental management. For this study, a questionnaire survey was administered in Ibaraki Prefecture. Based on the survey results, the influence on the environmental balance of local governments by changing lifestyles was revealed in the environmentally balanced areas concept. Results show the following: 1) Larger urban scales are associated with less environmental load and environmental capacity. 2) Although homemakers show a higher potential for raising the food self-sufficiency rate, the potential for reduced transportation and household energy consumption are higher for employed middle-aged people. 3) Scenario analysis reveals that areas with environmental balance are expected to shrink. Areas achieving the target values will increase.
    Download PDF (1409K)
  • Kouki ONITSUKA, Juichiro AKIYAMA, Keisuke KASUGAI, Noriaki OHARA, Kazu ...
    2016 Volume 72 Issue 6 Pages II_119-II_125
    Published: 2016
    Released: April 10, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     The water includes turbidity during and after the flood. Almost fish uses eyes and lateral line during swimming, so that the turbidity may effect on the swimming behavior of school of fish. However, there are few study on relations between the turbidity and swimming behavior of school of fish. In this study, the swimming behaviors of school of ayu, Plecoglossus altivelis altivelis, by changing turbidity and the number of fish in static water, were recorded with a digital video camera. It was found that the fish school is divided to some fish school with an increase of turbidity. This is because ayu can not find the other individual by view due to turbidity. In addition, the distance between each ayu and school of fish radius decrease with an increase of turbidity.
    Download PDF (865K)
  • Kouki ONITSUKA, Juichiro AKIYAMA, Shuhei TAKAMATSU
    2016 Volume 72 Issue 6 Pages II_127-II_132
    Published: 2016
    Released: April 10, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     Most of fishways installed in Japanese rivers belong to the pool-and-weir fishway type. This fishway is usually made by concrete, so that the color of the pool side-wall and bed are gray. It has been found that ayu (Plecoglossus Altivelis Altivelis)'s evasion color is red, however, preference color has been unknown. In this study, it have been tried to improve migration rate of ayu with the color of sidewall were changed. It was found that most preference color was yellow for ayu. It was found that the migration rate increases by painting upstream sidewall and right bank sidewall in yellow. It's because ayu prefer painted upstream sidewall and right bank sidewall in yellow, and center of fish's school is located nearby upstream notch.
    Download PDF (1207K)
  • Muneyuki AOKI, Yuta KIKUCHI, Mutsumi SAKAMA
    2016 Volume 72 Issue 6 Pages II_133-II_141
    Published: 2016
    Released: April 10, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     The purposes of this study are to examine clearly the flow, bed configuration characteristics and the characteristic of fish swimming behavior around the groin. To complete them, the hydraulics experiments and to observed the movement of real fish were done.
     As the results, low velocity areas were formed the downstream of the groin and deviation flow was formed by the groin. Moreover, fish stayed at the high vorticity areas (more 2(rad/s)) and low velocity areas (25(cm/s) or less). On another front, fish run up at the small vorticity areas (2(rad/s) or less) and high velocity areas (25(cm/s). Therefore, fish behavior has the possibility that vorticity contributes coupled with velocity.
    Download PDF (1267K)
  • Kouki ONITSUKA, Juichiro AKIYAMA, Akira SHISHIDO, Tomohide TAKEDA
    2016 Volume 72 Issue 6 Pages II_143-II_148
    Published: 2016
    Released: April 10, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     In the environmental field of river, there is a problem that evacuation space for fish is scant. By previous investigation, it is figured out that fish evacuate to the low velocity zone. But the relationship between evacuation behavior and river structure is not fully elucidated. The porpose of this study is to make clear that geometric structure of effective wando which is important as a evacuation space. Side-pocket was set up and the entrance length of it was methodically changed. The swimming behaviors of Zacco Platypus (Oikawa) in floods were recorded with digital video camera. Changes in behavior doe to the difference of the entrance length were investigated. It is found that Zacco Platypus aggressively evacuated when the entrance length was 8 times longer than Zacco Platypus.
    Download PDF (1727K)
  • Tohru TAKAMI, Keiichi KANDA, Moriyoshi WATANABE
    2016 Volume 72 Issue 6 Pages II_149-II_155
    Published: 2016
    Released: April 10, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     This study was aimed at estimating effectiveness on bamboo charcoal for the water purification of river in urban region. The demonstration experiment in water purification using bamboo charcoal was conducted at a distributary channel of Yota River in Kakogawa River basin. The laboratory experiment in adsorption isotherm for methylene blue and the model experiment on glucose as a constituent of BOD were also conducted. As the results of these experiments, it demonstrated a decrease in SS and BOD in the channel water by passing through bamboo charcoal. In addition, it obtained the Freundlich isotherm for adsorption of methylene blue onto bamboo charcoal. Furthermore, the result of the model experiment suggested the necessary weight of bamboo charcoal for decreasing in BOD in the channel water.
    Download PDF (1138K)
  • Atsushi TANABE, Tomoko MINAGAWA
    2016 Volume 72 Issue 6 Pages II_157-II_165
    Published: 2016
    Released: April 10, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     Among 70 species shorebirds flying to Japan, 13 spices are recognized as threatened species. In this research, distribution of potential habitat was studied for protecting those 6 spices in coastal area of Kyusyu region was estimated. The shorebird monitoring data named ‘Monitoring Sites 1000’ and land use data in coastal area were used. The result of analysis using MaxEnt showed that river, lake and tidal flat area were positive but urban area and forest area were negative. The predicted potential habitats were coastal area of Ariake Sea, Suonada, Yatsushirokai Sea, Hyuganada and Amami-Oshima area. However, registering at sanctuary or nature reserve are just small areas among those areas. A number of periodical shorebirds survey was small in Hyuganada and Amami-Oshima area. In order to protect the threatened species, there is a need to designate potential habitats as sanctuary or nature reserve with consideration of enough surveys of the areas and surrounding environment.
    Download PDF (1208K)
  • Maya OKAMURA, Kosuke UESUGI, Tomoko MINAGAWA
    2016 Volume 72 Issue 6 Pages II_167-II_176
    Published: 2016
    Released: April 10, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     The floodplain-dependent fish species such as Bitterling subfamily Acheilognathinae are decreasing at the Kikuchi river. Accordingly, it has been required taking countermeasure for the preservation of these fish. In this study, in order to obtain the knowledge for the floodplain-dependent fish species, classified waterbodies and evaluated each of the function as habitat of the floodplain-dependent fish. As a result, many floodplain-dependent fish spices were confirmed in the floodponds on the fixed sandbar and large waterbodies on the fixed sandbar. Especially, it was suggested that waterbodies on the fixed sandbar is important for the conservation of the three species (Acheilognathinae, Oryzias latipes, Abbottina rivularis). On the other hand, waterbodies on the sandbar were functioning as habitat of fry of the Zacco platypus, Zacco temminckii.
    Download PDF (1267K)
  • Keiji KISHIMOTO, Toyono INAKAZU, Akira KOIZUMI, Koichi HASEGAWA, Testu ...
    2016 Volume 72 Issue 6 Pages II_177-II_185
    Published: 2016
    Released: April 10, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     The inside structure of an seismic water storage tank is extremely spacious compared to the size of the inlet pipe, therefore the flow velocity of water in the aseismatic water storage tank becomes slow and the occurrence of stagnation is a concern. Since storage tanks are often installed at the ends of water distribution networks, it is also important to manage the residual chlorine concentration as well as the flow field inside such tanks.
     In this study, the flow condition of aseismatic water storage tank when the inflow velocity has changed was examined using computational fluid dynamics. We first analyzed the flow field in a storage tank of typical shape to identify the locations of the stagnation regions as well as the residual chlorine concentration changes in the inflow and outflow of strage tank. Then, validity of the analysis results were confirmed by comparing with the measured value of the residual chlorine concentration at the inlets and outlets of the storage tank in service. By this analytical method, the flow field in storage tank with a capacity of 100 m3 was simulated with four inflow rate scenarios, and it revealed that the residual chlorine concentration in the storing and outflow water decreased considerably against the inflow water, providing a potential to cause degradation of water quality when the rate of inflow dropped below 10 m3/day.
    Download PDF (4128K)
  • Wako KAWAMURA, Yasuhiro ARAI, Akira KOIZUMI, Toyono INAKAZU, Katsuya Y ...
    2016 Volume 72 Issue 6 Pages II_187-II_194
    Published: 2016
    Released: April 10, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     Water pipelines are infrastructure essential to our daily life. Due to extensive deterioration, breaks in pipes have become frequent. Measures to prevent pipe leakage rely on highly skilled inspection personnel who use listening sticks or similar devices to detect leaks based on the leak sounds transmitted along the road surface or at valves. It is assumed that these inspectors detect leaks based on the volume, frequency range, and timbre of the sounds. The problem is that their skills are not being passed down, as not enough highly experienced personnel have been trained to meet today's demand. Technology is needed that can substitute for their auditory skills and experience. In this study, leak sound data measured under various conditions is analyzed from the two aspects of time domain and frequency domain. First, peak values measured on a sound recorder are subject to time-series analysis. Second, the features of the frequency spectrum are analyzed using Fourier transform. The objective of this research is to obtain information useful for discrimination of water leakage sounds from other sounds. The results of the discrimination analysis indicate that the frequency domains useful for leakage detection are in the neighborhood of 1000[Hz] to 5000[Hz] for ductile iron pipes and 500 [Hz] to 1500[Hz] in the case of polyethylene pipes. The study also showed that the positioning of the sound recorder in relation to the leak location, as well as the leaking volume, affect the precision of leak detection.
    Download PDF (1675K)
  • Yasuhiro ARAI, Kazunobu OZAKI, Akira KOIZUMI, Toyono INAKAZU, Shouhei ...
    2016 Volume 72 Issue 6 Pages II_195-II_203
    Published: 2016
    Released: April 10, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     Environmental issues need to be addressed urgently in many different fields. In the water supply field, various measures are being taken to save energy. Of particular importance is optimization of the water supply control and management plan, given the large amount of electric power usage for transporting water. In this study we proposed an optimization model for the water distribution system of the Tokyo Bureau of Waterworks, aimed at reducing electric power usage, and attempted a simulation. First we conducted studies on a virtual network based on part of the target area. We clarified the impact on electric power usage from differences in the operating conditions (initial stored water amount and rotation timing) of the distribution reservoir. Second, we studied the network planned for the future, with its pipeline redundancy and installation of new water supply stations. We showed how, applying the latest improved model, a balance can be achieved between ensuring stable water supply and reducing energy usage.
    Download PDF (1239K)
  • Kohei HASEGAWA, Yasuhiro ARAI, Akira KOIZUMI
    2016 Volume 72 Issue 6 Pages II_205-II_216
    Published: 2016
    Released: April 10, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     Much of research to date has analyzed the effect of Social Discount Rate (SDR) on optimization of water distribution systems (WDSs). However, the relevant ministries in Japan have not reviewed the SDR both theoretically and practically over a long term even though SDR dramatically changes the results of analyses. To establish the methods of calibration of SDR and point out the issues that related research in optimization of WDSs must further investigate, this study reviewed a range of research analyzing the influence of SDR in WDSs from both theoretical and practical perspectives. In addition, this study conducted sensitivity analysis of SDR in a Japanese WDS. This study found that (1) current SDR set by Japanese ministries deviates from current interest rates and bond yield periods, (2) some previous studies have adapted inappropriate amortization for greenhouse gas emissions, (3) continuous use of relatively higher SDR causes inequality between cost and environmental burdens borne by later generations. Consequently, this study proposed that Japan's government should calibrate SDR to lower it and adopt declining discount rates after 40 years (i. e. Japan's maximum bond calculation year).
    Download PDF (1410K)
  • Shintaro OKADA, Kazuei ISHII, Atsushi FUJIYAMA, Toru FURUITHI
    2016 Volume 72 Issue 6 Pages II_217-II_228
    Published: 2016
    Released: April 10, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     Because of municipal solid waste reduction according to depopulation or promotion of 3R, in the future, many local governments will face the difficulty in operation of municipal waste treatment systems, depending on their population size. On the other hand, biogas plants (BP) has been focused as a one of treatment systems for combustible waste in terms of effective energy recovery. So in this study, we investigated effective waste treatment systems in terms of an effective role of BP under the condition of waste reduction , especially focusing the efficiency of costs and energy. As a result, in small scale population, an operation of BP for only kitchen waste would be impossible. A mechanical-sieving and and dry-fermentation system in the middle scale would be effective if energy recovery is prioritized. A kitchen waste separation and wet- fermentation system in large scale would be cost-effective, although it might be necessary to consider a change of separate collection.
    Download PDF (1104K)
  • Kei KATSUMI, Atsushi FUJIYAMA, Kazuei ISHI, Toru FURUICHI
    2016 Volume 72 Issue 6 Pages II_229-II_240
    Published: 2016
    Released: April 10, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     In the field of waste, resource use and energy recovery of waste is important. Especially, organic waste, such as kitchen waste and night soil sludge, have a high potential as circulation resources. This organic waste has been treated separately in incineration facilities and human waste treatment facilities up to now. But, as one of our future directions, we can consider them resources by using an integrated treatment system. This study examined an integrated treatment system in a sludge treatment center , to target a population in a small area. As a result, the integrated treatment system in the sludge treatment center was seen to be effective in terms of energy balance, environmental load and cost. Next this study considered the difference of treatment method, in particular comparing high-rate composting and me-thane fermentation. As a resulet, methane fermentation compared to high-ratee composting turned out to have high cost, but energy balance and environmental load became better.
    Download PDF (1034K)
  • Rachman INDRIYANI, Shohei HOSOKAWA, Toru MATSUMOTO
    2016 Volume 72 Issue 6 Pages II_241-II_247
    Published: 2016
    Released: April 10, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     In recent years, serious in attention urban waste management has been built in Indonesia. Many waste recovery projects were establishes for recycling households waste with community-based management called “Waste Bank”. In this study, we focused to clarify the factors influence local residents to participate in the Waste Bank, conducted a survey about the awareness of the waste problem and Waste Bank. Data are collected from member and non member of waste bank and analyzed with covariance structure analysis. The results clearly identified different level of residents' participation in members and non-members. Member knowledge affects the goal intention. Social norm evaluation influenced behavioral intention of Non-members. Also, it is possible to copy the activities of the waste bank from the strong association with efficacy perception and social norms evaluation for waste bank improvement.
    Download PDF (1141K)
  • Hiroyasu KOIZUMI, Jun NAKATANI, Yuichi MORIGUCHI
    2016 Volume 72 Issue 6 Pages II_249-II_256
    Published: 2016
    Released: April 10, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     An enormous quantity of social capital and buildings has accumulated as stock in the Tokyo metropolitan area, and their inflow and outflow continue. In this study, we developed a time-series flow and stock model for wooden buildings and applied the model to the 180-year period from 1872 through 2050 in Tokyo. We assumed that the survival rate of buildings is determined by both the constructional lifetime, which depends on the period of construction, and external pressures such as disasters and economic changes. The fitting calculation was performed according to statistical data. The results showed that the quantity of wooden buildings would peak in 2033 and the quantity of demolition would peak in 2047. In addition, the results indicated that World War II and the bubble economy in the late 1980s sifted the peak of demolition by approximately 10-12 years, respectively.
    Download PDF (1683K)
  • Ryo ANABUKI, Kazuei ISHII, Atsushi FUJIYAMA, Toru FURUICHI
    2016 Volume 72 Issue 6 Pages II_257-II_267
    Published: 2016
    Released: April 10, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     There are many cases, in which introduction of renewable energy business has to be abandoned because of negative business balance. Independent distributed renewable energy can secure the energy required in case of emergency and can provide local benefits such as employment and local industry. However, such local benefits have not been evaluated quantitatively and have not been considered in business balance. This study developed a business planning model for renewable energy including biomass energy according to regional specific conditions, considering quantitative evaluation of local benefits. The model was applied to a case study, in which a local government manages a district heat supply system using woods, a biogas plant for cow manure and a photovoltaic power generation system. As a result, the local benefits such as energy security in case of emergency, employment and local industry found to be significant, although the monetary value of them depends on kinds of renewable energies. Add of the all local benefits to the business balance showed a positive value in the total balance of an account for the local government.
    Download PDF (1416K)
  • Minami KIKUCHI, Takaaki FURUBAYASHI, Toshihiko NAKATA
    2016 Volume 72 Issue 6 Pages II_269-II_276
    Published: 2016
    Released: April 10, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     In Japan, fossil fuels imported supply about 90% of primary energy, which occurring large amount of CO2 emission and outflow of domestic funds to other coutries. The objective of this study is to design the local energy system using local resources which can realize low emission and economic circulation in the area. The targeted area is Fukushima prefecture. First, the amount of energy resources in local area is estimated using GIS. Second, the energy system is optimized in terms of CO2 emission and cost, then the system is evaluated from multi points of view which are economic effect, energy efficiency and resource diversity. As a result, it is concluded that if more wind energy and wood biomass used the CO2 emissions will be decreased to almost 0 and economic ripple effect in the local area will be increased.
    Download PDF (942K)
  • Shigeyuki MATSUMOTO, Hidetoshi KITAWAKI
    2016 Volume 72 Issue 6 Pages II_277-II_288
    Published: 2016
    Released: April 10, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     Many water utilities in developing countries are suffering from large amount of non-revenue water (NRW), which worsens their financial situations and hampers investment for expansion and improvement of their water supply service. This research developed a model using integer programming to find an optimal combination of NRW reduction measures in developing countries, which takes into account composition of NRW, budget limitation, and cost, benefit and change in effect of each measure. The model has made it possible to show optimal NRW reduction measures and analyze influence of parameters, budget limitation, and other conditions.
    Download PDF (1151K)
  • Chiho KAMIYAMA, Shizuka HASHIMOTO, Ryo KOHSAKA, Osamu SAITO
    2016 Volume 72 Issue 6 Pages II_289-II_297
    Published: 2016
    Released: April 10, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     A key challenge for sustainable use of natural resources is determining how to manage multiple ecosystem services across landscapes. According to Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA), this challenge requires identifying trade-offs and synergies that exist among ecosystem services. We developed an inventory consisted of 35 ecosystem services and 20 socio-ecological attributes based on statistical data of 17 municipalities in Ishikawa Prefecture, which contains long-standing socio-ecological production landscapes and seascapes. We analyzed how ecosystem services are interlinked as synergy and trade-off and how such relationships are influenced by the socio-ecological attributes. We found that there was a synergy among forest related ecosystem services (e.g. forest water retention, timber production) and also among agriculture related ecosystem services (e.g. rice production, agricultural water retention) and there was trade-off between forest related ecosystem services and agriculture related ecosystem services. Municipality which has larger forest area and higher heterogeneity of landscapes tends to have higher values of forest related ecosystem services, while municipality which has larger cultivated area and higher population tends to have higher values of agriculture related ecosystem services and cultural services (e.g. number of forest recreation facilities, number of cultural properties). For managing multiple ecosystem services toward sustainable society in harmony with nature, our results suggest that decision-making needs to focus on interaction among ecosystem services and recognize that these synergies and trade-offs are strongly linked to socio-ecological attributes of the municipalities. Further research is required to understand the mechanism behind the synergetic or trade-off relationships across different ecosystem services identified by this study.
    Download PDF (1425K)
  • Chihiro HAGA, Takanori MATSUI, Takashi MACHIMURA
    2016 Volume 72 Issue 6 Pages II_299-II_309
    Published: 2016
    Released: April 10, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     The sustainable management of Satoyama landscape is a major to realize a society in harmony with nature. To support the sustainable management, quantitative assessment and projection method of biodiversity and ecosystem services in Satoyama landscape is needed. In this study, we developed a simulation process of forest structure and landscape diversity for future scenario assessment. We selected Ishikawa prefecture as a test site. We simulated vegetation succession in 1998 to 2097 by using the LANDIS-II model, a Forest Landscape Model (FLM), under satoyama management scenarios and evaluated the modified Satoyama Index (M-SI). The result shows that management of abandoned farmland has large effect on M-SI value rather than forest management. And we discussed on the utility and future tasks in applying the developed simulation process for future scenario analysis of satoyama landscape.
    Download PDF (1597K)
  • Keiichi HASEGAWA, Yusuke UENO, Nodoka OSHIRO, Masamichi TAKIMOTO, Yuuk ...
    2016 Volume 72 Issue 6 Pages II_311-II_317
    Published: 2016
    Released: April 10, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     In Japan, as well as globally, emphasis has been placed recently on the cooperation between sustainable development and multifunctional social capital building, with respect to the conservation of local ecosystems. In this regard, a wide-ranging environmental assessment is necessary to facilitate a successful partnership. We have consequently surveyed and evaluated the conditions and challenges pertaining to the conservation of fauna and flora in relation to 417 road-building projects in Japan. Our results have indicated that during the implementation phase the environmental conservation measures (ECM) appeared to be disproportionately slanted in favor of certain taxonomic groups (i.e., rare raptors and orchidaceous plants). However, in the investigative phase, most taxonomic groups had been surveyed to consider the target conservation species. The number of target species relevant to the ECM varied by region. Mostly, the duration of the monitoring period after the ECM was one or two years. Our survey indicated that a limited number of projects were attempting to apply sustainable environmental conservation measures, with cooperation from the road operators, regional communities, and scientists.
    Download PDF (811K)
  • Yoshitaka MATSUMOTO, Takahiro KATO, Takuro INOHAE
    2016 Volume 72 Issue 6 Pages II_319-II_324
    Published: 2016
    Released: April 10, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     Emergency water supply is one of the necessary operations for preventing the secondaly problems, human health and sanitary issues occurring after a huge earth quake. Therefore, the stocking volume of emergency water and the workload have to be evaluated in each city to prepare a rapid and concrete action on an emergency situation. We tried to estimate the necessary water volume on each water supply base area, which is separated by Voronoi method using GIS analysis from supplying population and supplying water volume for each person, 3L until the 3rd day after a disaster and 20L until the 20th day on each day. This research was simulated at Toyota City, Aichi. The necessary water volume for emergency will be shortage at 3 areas where the higher density of residentail land sets in 10 areas, while the enough volume is pooled in a whole city. This result suggests the city needs to prepare the opperation manual about the water that the reservoir accumulates enough distributes to a shortage area. In addition, the workload that means a number of tracks delivering water from water supply base to each evacuation center was estimated by a same method as the water volume. Under 10 tracks demands to deliver water at 70 % of a whole evacuation center in the first three days after a disaster, however, the ration decreases to 25 % after 4th day.
    Download PDF (947K)
  • Asako IWAMI
    2016 Volume 72 Issue 6 Pages II_325-II_331
    Published: 2016
    Released: April 10, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     In this study, the author tried to comprehend and visualize disaster prevention awareness of local residents by questionnaire survey with statistical analysis of closed questions and text mining of free description in Hoshizaki district, Nagoya city, Aichi prefecture. As the result of these analysis, it was illustrated that it was taken non-structure and self-help measures of disaster prevention in the site that damage is assumed at the time of disaster because of structure measures such as wooden houses and high-density district. It was clarified that it is need to specify the shelter in mind of not only physical but also psychological distance. Further, it was also illustrated that residents have concern about the evacuation or shelter in the event of an earthquake.
    Download PDF (1042K)
  • Yasuhiro ARAI, Akira KOIZUMI, Toyono INAKAZU, Wako KAWAMURA
    2016 Volume 72 Issue 6 Pages II_333-II_340
    Published: 2016
    Released: April 10, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     When leak sensors are actually mounted on water pipelines, the locations for deploying them would be at the auxiliary equipment such as the gate valves installed every few hundred meters and fire hydrants. The total length of water pipelines laid throughout Japan is some 600,000 kilometers. Assuming a length of several thousand kilometers for the pipelines in a given target area, the possible locations for deploying sensors can number in the tens of thousands. Mounting sensors on all the possible locations would hardly be efficient, either economically or from a maintenance standpoint. On a pipeline network spreading out horizontally, it is important to ensure that the sensors are deployed in a way to maximize their effectiveness in detecting water leakages. To this end, a method is needed for objectively planning deployment of a given number of sensors on the optimal gate valves and hydrants. This study, aimed at optimal deployment of leak sensors on a water pipeline network, proposes a planning model applying the k-median problem, a kind of mathematical optimization problem, and verifies the effectiveness of this model by means of case studies.
    Download PDF (1367K)
  • Yusuke UENO, Masao KURIHARA
    2016 Volume 72 Issue 6 Pages II_341-II_349
    Published: 2016
    Released: April 10, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     Raptor was surveyed frequently in various construction projects and natural environment research. The investigation of raptors needs many experienced investigators and time. Thus, in this study, we try to develop the efficient survey method of raptors (Goshawk Accipiter gentilis) using sound analysis. First, we derived Goshawk's calls from the prerecorded video by camera on nests. Second, we built discriminant model to classify Goshawk's calls to five calls (i.e., alarm, begging, copulation, chick, unfledged bird).
    Download PDF (1023K)
feedback
Top