This article intends to discuss problems related to our understanding of the complex causes of so-called organizational accidents. Having acquired the academic currency, the notion of organizational accidents with the emphasis of distributed causes of them, however, has given rise to a series of both epistemological and practical problems. Focused in this paper is the clash between this notion and our tendency of seeking for more localized causes, such as a particular person or a single incident. Also the question of legal responsibility challenges the assumption of this notion. By spotlighting these cases, this paper concludes the inherent limitation of our understanding of accidents caused by the organizational or distributed network of causes.
Telecommunication network is an essential infrastructure for daily life and economic activities. Especially during major national disasters and other emergency situations, it is expected to supports to maintain governmental function and national security and to provide communications tools for safety confirmation. This paper provides impact of the earthquake and actions for recovery of Telecommunication network. And challenges and measures, to be taken to maintain communications capabilities during emergency situations, are also explained.
In The East Japan Great Earthquake, a considerable amount and a huge variety of emergency relief supplies were sent to sufferers through various operations under participation of many parties .However in this earthquake disaster, various problems occurred, such as a lack of information, a fuel shortage and functional failures in distribution centers etc. In order to deliver emergency relief supplies to sufferers exactly, not the view of "transportation" but the view of "logistics" is required. In this regard, it is required to analyze lessons learned through this earthquake disaster, and to build "The Emergency Relief Supplies Logistics System" under the cooperation between public and private sectors.
The earthquake and tsunami suffered serious damages to oil facilities in pacific coast of East Japan. Due to suspensions of forwarding from refineries and deposits, the oil industry could not continue stable supply for stricken areas, in spite of plenty stocks. However, the industry restored usual supply most of East Japan by beginning of April. Oil products are recognized important and valuable, as "Last Resort" of energy, through the earthquake. Even after disruption of electricity and gas, oil products are depended as emergency energy for generation, heating, vehicle and etc. As lessons, maintaining and strengthening supply chain of oil shall be considered in reviewing energy policy by the government.
A business crisis can be anything that can negatively effect to a company's reputation and continuance. After a research of D-company, revived from Hanshin Earthquake, we found the effectiveness of the hub, communication network across sections within the organization. As a result of analysis, it was revealed that the hubs had collected a variety of information and made themselves information sources sending out three kind of information: one is "information on what situation they are in" "information on the procedure of what to do", and the other is "analyzed information ".
A lot of vicious acts under the cover of the Great East Japan Earthquake are reported. For example, they are vicious email and chain mail, wild rumors without grounds or false rumors. About a nuclear power generation accident and radioactive contamination, various false rumors and wild rumors have flowed on internet, and it was argued a deletion request and dispatch regulation of wild rumors without grounds or false rumors. In this paper, through analysis of a legal side of the false rumor and chain mail related to the Great East Japan Earthquake I consider possibility of laws and regulations for wild rumors on Internet.
In the Great East Japan Earthquake that occurred on March 11th, 2011, social media were utilized in various scenes and social media played the important role. On the other hand, many problems are pointed out to practical use of the social media at the time of disaster. This paper examines the possibility of practical use of the social media at the time of disaster by arranging the advantage and problem based on the situation of the social media use especially in the Great East Japan Earthquake.
The purpose of this paper is to discuss about the issue of sign system in the nuclear power plant in Japan. According to our research, Takahama plant and Fukushima the first and the second plants have different sign systems each other. Especially each sign for emergency was designed by different concept. We emphasize that such sign for emergency should be concerned with the view of labors in order to save their lives. In this paper, ethnomethodological approach is recommended for such design practice to avoid risk.
In this study, we explore the emergent typology of models utilized by Japanese companies in their websites for conducting marketing activities. We determine the dominant models used for motivating the creation of company websites for marketing. On the basis of the social constructivism view of technology, we discuss the reflexive effects of technology on society, with a focus on the Internet. A close examination of the historical development of websites used for marketing reveals that the creation of community-type websites was not initially considered. Research results indicate the emergence of two typical types of models for such websites: "Market-type" and "Community-type" models.