The surface wind sensor was developed by H.P.A.H. Irwin to measure not only the mean wind speeds but also the lower frequency fluctuations in pedestrian wind studies. It can be expected to be applied to get data for wind environment evaluation considering wind fluctuation. It seems to be applied at abroad practically. But insufficient information on its practical usability is obtained in literatures. Then, its characteristics and practical usability are examined on the basis of some wind tunnel tests.
Wind loads on free-standing canopy roofs have been studied in a wind tunnel. Three types of roof geometries, i.e. gable, troughed and mono-sloped roofs, with roof pitches between 0° and 15°, were tested. Wind pressures were measured simultaneously at many points both on the top and bottom surfaces of the roof model for various wind directions. The paper describes the characteristics of the local wind pressures with special attention to the mechanism and estimation of the peak net pressure coefficients. Based on the results for the most critical positive and negative peak pressure coefficients irrespective of wind direction, the peak wind force coefficients for the design of cladding and its immediately supporting structures are proposed. The proposed values are compared with the previous wind-tunnel results as well as with the specifications of Codes and Standards. The effect of obstruction under the roof on the wind force coefficients is also investigated.