This paper describes the experimental study of a non-stratified airflow past a two-dimensional escarpment in a uniform flow. The Reynolds number, based on the uniform flow and the height of the escarpment, is about 104. The slope gradient of the escarpment is 25, 35 and 45 degree. Airflows around the escarpment include the unsteady separated and reattaching flow (hereafter called a “separation bubble”), where the separation occurs from a sharp corner. Attention is focused on an influence of a surface roughness on airflow characteristics in a wake region. For this purpose, the velocity components were measured with the X-wire probe and the split-film probe. In addition, the flow visualization was performed by using the smoke-wire technique. Through comparison between the experimental results with the surface roughness and those without it, the significant difference in the airflow characteristics is confirmed in the separation bubble. This is mainly due to the size in the separation bubble. The size in the separation bubble with the surface roughness is much larger than the one without it. In the case under an imposition of the surface roughness, the velocity is strongly defected near the slope surface. As a result, the production of the vorticity in the separated shear layer is also inhibited, leading to the elongation in the separation bubble.
Previous studies of wind loads on free-standing canopy roofs have been surveyed. Focus is on the data obtained from wind-tunnel measurements in simulated atmospheric boundary layers as well as from full-scale measurements. Comparisons are made between these studies for some aerodynamic characteristics, such as mean and peak wind force coefficients. The wind load provisions in the current Building Standard Law of Japan are also compared with the experimental results. The comparisons are restricted to the clear flow case with no obstructions under the roof. A discussion is made of the subjects to be investigated for making the provisions more appropriate.