It is necessary for improving the safety of a swing-type window to evaluate the impact force caused by the wind flowing along a wall in the stopper part of the window. The strong wind test was performed in order to measure the impact force induced by a wind, and the characteristic of the wind energy and the impact force were clarified. The evaluation method of the impact force based on simple oscillation was proposed, and it is confirmed that the impact force by the proposed method is good agreement with the impact force by the drop weight test. It is considered that the proposed evaluation method is useful for the safety design of the swing-type window.
Two series of wind tunnel experiments and a finite element analysis are carried out to investigate the buckling behavior of thin cylindrical shell structures, such as open-topped oil-storage tanks, aiming at discussing the design wind loads. In the first series of experiments, pressure distributions both on the external and internal surfaces of open-topped cylinder are measured in two kinds of flows, i.e. a smooth uniform flow and a turbulent boundary layer. In the second series of experiments, the deflection of thin cylindrical shell specimens is measured at a windward point. Then, a finite element analysis of the buckling of the cylindrical shells under static wind loading is made for discussing the relationship between the wind force distribution and the buckling behavior of the shells in more detail. The results indicate that the positive wind force distribution in the windward region affects the buckling behavior significantly. Finally, the design wind load, which simulates the buckling behavior appropriately, is proposed.