Turbulence affects the human sensation of wind, the wind-induced damage to buildings. The statistical values of winds measured by 3-cup anemometers are also affected by the turbulence. For this reason, it is important to study the influence of turbulence on the wind environment assessment criterion proposed by Wind Engineering Institute Co., Ltd. several decades ago, which was based on the mean wind speeds measured by 3-cup anemometers. The present paper discusses the influences of turbulence on the criterion using the results of field observation, a wind tunnel experiment, and a questionnaire survey about the human sensation of wind that was given to the residents and pedestrians in Tokyo. Based on the results, we have proposed a new criterion for evaluating the pedestrian-level wind environment, in which the influence of turbulence is considered.
Wind speed deﬁcit due to wake is severe problem for wind power generation. To simulate the wake eﬀect, several types of numerical model coupled with wind turbine models have been developed. However, most of them require higher spatial resolution than meteorological models which recently used. Thus, performance of meteorological Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) model coupled with Actuator disk model without Rotation (ADM-NR), which has lower spatial resolution than that used in the previous research, is not fully investigated. In this research, reproducibility of the meteorological RANS model coupled with ADM-NR is evaluated against meteorological LES model coupled with Actuator Disk model with Rotation (ADM-R). From the comparison, it revealed that meteorological RANS model coupled with ADM-NR reproduced behavior of wind speed deﬁcit in certain boundary layer conditions. However, turbulence intensity cannot be calculated appropriately and recovery speed from wake condition was underestimated. This result suggested that parameterization of eﬀect of wind turbine in turbulent closure model is insuﬃcient to simulate turbulent kinetic energy production and length scale correctly.
This study examined the applicability of a GPS tracking system for birds in prospect of future requirements to consider the symbiosis with the bird life in the construction and operation of wind turbines on the coastal area or on the ocean. The target here to apply the GPS tracking system was the crow in the Yokohama-city, which was expected to show complex moving paths in the urban area. Six crows were caught in the Yokohama National University campus, and the GPS device was put on each of their backs before releasing. The positional data were then acquired every 30 minutes for 14 days with the success rate of 90% or more in five out of six crows. The data were applicable to understand the characteristic moving path of each crow.