We investigated whether the characteristics of autobiographical memory recalled by Japanese onomatopoeia are different from those recalled by non-onomatopoetic Japanese words with similar meanings. One hundred twenty participants were instructed to recall an autobiographical memory corresponding to the meaning of word cues, as well as answer a questionnaire containing 11 items associated with the recalled autobiographical memory. The word cues were eight onomatopoetic or non-onomatopoetic words of similar meanings. The results showed that the onomatopoeia-induced autobiographical memories were more recent compared to the non-onomatopoeia-induced memories. This suggests that the image information inherent in onomatopoeia helps people in recalling more recent autobiographical memories.
This paper provides an overview of the idea of decision research and related experimental methods. Decision research in social psychology is described briefly as the general term for descriptive theories to explain the psychological knowledge related to people's decision-making behavior. As the studies of S. Asch, S. Milgram, H. A. Simon, and D. Kahneman suggest, the experimental methodology and knowledge of decision research have been applied widely in such fields as economics, business administration, and engineering, and are expected to become useful in the future. This paper explains various experimental methods and data analysis methods related to research in decision-making processes, and introduces utility measurement, estimation of probability weighting functions, conjoint measurements, process tracing techniques, and preference measurements using incentive compatibility techniques. It ends with discussion section of the experimental methods in decision research.
There has always been a close relationship between social psychology and cognitive psychology. In this article, I review research on implicit attitudes in social psychology, focusing on the measures inspired by theories and methodologies from cognitive psychology. I also discuss the theoretical influence of cognitive approach on the studies about attitudes and attitude change. Finally, I discuss the associative-propositional evaluation (APE) model, an integrative perspective on attitude change.
Response biases such as midpoint responses denigrate the validity of research conclusions. In this article, the authors' experimental studies on midpoint responses are introduced. For example, these studies have suggested that respondents with low motivation tend to choose the middle category. This could partially explain why fewer people in Japan have reported being happy. Another study by the authors demonstrated that over responding increases middle category responses in a phenomenon that is seemingly similar to habituation. In addition, the availability of response time and eye tracking data among others are discussed. With the growth of web surveys, it has become easy to experimentally investigate survey response behaviors. Therefore, collaborations between experimental psychologists and survey researchers would be helpful to improve the quality of surveys.
When researchers analyze data from an experiment with multiple experimental stimuli, they tend to aggregate responses to the experimental stimuli before performing a statistical test (e.g., t-test, analysis of variance). This common practice, however, ignores sampling errors of experimental stimuli, resulting in a substantial increase in Type-1 error rate. This article reviews the relevant literature and provides conceptual explanations about the mechanisms underlying the inflation of Type-1 error rate. The article also illustrates how linear mixed-effects model with random-stimulus effects can address the issue, with the emphasis on the correct model specification when using linear mixed-effects model.
Exposure is a well-known efficient therapeutic technique for anxiety disorders or irrational fear. The present article reviews the behavioral mechanisms of fear reduction in exposure-based therapies including simple exposure and systematic desensitization. The traditional and current theories of associative learning of Pavlovian conditioning, extinction, and response reemergence are applicable to acquisition, treatment, and relapse of fear. Despite recent transactions between basic animal research and human clinical studies on simple exposure therapy, little attention is paid to the counterconditioning process in systematic desensitization. By focusing on theoretical and experimental studies with animals and their implications for clinical settings, we propose further collaboration between basic and clinical studies.
This note is a short report on the activity of the Young Researchers Committee of the Japanese Psychonomic Society (JPS) in 2017. As the highlighted activity of the committee in 2017, we held the oral session of the 36th annual meeting of JPS. Eight young researchers were selected as the finalists from 17 entries and made presentations on their studies that have already been published in peer-reviewed journals. One of the finalists who got the most votes from audience was awarded as the Young Psychonomic Scientist of the Year 2017.