Former planning theory for residential areas lacks the consideration of dynamic aspects, in particular, the importance of the negotiation among related bodies. To overcome this circumstance, a new planning concept for improvement of residential areas is proposed. In this concept, the negotiation among residents is effectively devised, so that residents by themselves can propose and implement new visions of the residing areas, and moreover, that those who contribute to the area most can have the dominant negotiating power. Such a right of decision may yield a critical incentive to improve the residential areas. The comprehensive designing system will be necessary in order to jointly improve the areas.
This Paper intends to point out modern women's needs for housing and services from gender perspective. First, the conditions of urban environment and women's preference for the childcare support system are explored, based on the findings of questionnaire survey in 1995, addressed to 252 female users of a day nursery at three different districts of Osaka Metropolis. Second, it examines the potential needs for “collective house”, a form of housing containing communal space for residents and promoting to collaborative way of living, among women who are taking part of social activities. The result indicates the followings: 1) Living place linked to the women's present situation has a great influence upon their choice of support system. 2) Although those who wish to live in a collective house are not many, working women with children are looking for an alternative living arrangement, which provide them with the childcare support.
Housing Cooperative Act is the first cooperative housing supply system in Japan, whitch was enacted in 1921. HCA-Housing accounted for 40 percent of the public subsidized housing before WW II. I want to study for HCA-Housing, the process of birth, the situation in Housing strategy and its development and extinction. This examination will be useful to the NPO-housing and cooperative-housing deep-rooted the district.
There are some studies on Northern-European Co-operative housings, but on Norway, it's not enough. Norway's Co-operative housing has some differences. In this report, we aimed to make these as a basis in supplying new type of housing in the future. Results are summarizes as follows: 1) Traditionally the people owned their houses, so joint-owner type is superior in Norway.2) There are only a few public housings in Norway, so the co-operative housing is playing a part of the role of them.3) Diredly and indirectly, members can participate in the management and the planning of their cooperative housing.
Job related houses are generally larger in scale than private rental houses. Within the rental housing market, job related housing would share higher ratio as unit size criterion is raised. Rent ofjob related houses is generally lower than that of private rental houses. Those who live in job related houses have large families and earn high income compared with those who live in private rental houses. And dwellers of job related houses, which are comparatively large in scale, tend to move into owned houses not into private rental houses when they change houses. Therefore the market of private rental housing has little relation to that of job related housing.
The housing bonus FAR type district planning is the method for securing housing in the inner area. But, does this method work for this area including many small sites? The result of the case studies proves that the method has the limited effect on securing housing in the area. The reason is that the condition of supplying housings is not good enough for each land owner, and the smallness of each site limits the housing supply in the inner area.
This study focuses on two systems, i. e., “Built-up Comprehensive Maintenance Project” and “Redevelopment District Plan”, which correspond to large-scale land use conversion, and investigates into their actual states and effects based on these areas where the two system have been applied. This paper first analyzes the current operation states of the two system nationwide, housing supply issues, public infrastructure developments and land use changes. It then makes clear the characteristic of location and uses of the tow system, via Tokyo-ku-area where the two systems have been mostly introduced. Finally, the paper examines the actual states of the use of the two system from a viewpoint of location, for the purpose of formulation of compound built-up, based on three typical case studies.
This paper deals with affordable housing policies and their imprementation in inner London local planning authorities and attempts to clarify how development policies can contribute to this and also how planning department can corporate with housing department. The discussion begins with a general review of planning advantages, followed by an examination of affordable housing policies. Most of inner London authorities have three types of affordable housing policies: the size of site, the proportion of affordable housing and the use of planning agreement. From the analysis of practices, the planning departments negotiate with the applicants who have the large scale developments for securing affordable housing. These negotiations progress on the section 106 and their affordable housing requirements. Also it was found that the close liaison between planning and housing departments in local authorities for the implementation of affordable housing.
The aim of this paper is to show the state of the construction of three-story detached houses in Tokyo Metropolitan Area, and provide the data for studying the desirable way of controlling the construction of three-story detached houses at densely built-up areas with small housing lots. First, it summarizes the passage of the mitigation about constructing three-story wooden houses. Second, it analyzes the macro trend of the construction of three-story detached houses in the cities, wards, towns and villages of Tokyo, Saitama, Chiba and Kanagawa Prefectures. And then, it is cleared that the percentage of three-story detached houses is higher where the rate of small housing lots under 100m2 is higher and the area with use zoning for low rise residential buildings is smaller, but at the same time, three-story detached houses are also increasing recently where the area with use zoning for low rise residential buildings is not small, because of the mitigation about constructing three-story wooden houses.
Actually, how do ordinary people decide their housing?(“By whom...?”“Which type of dwelling...”“What are it's criteria?” etc.) This study aims to describe the structure of actions in production of order-made detached houses. People do act in their housing by changing their conceivable facts and indirect experience from their neighbors (for example, past relocation of housing, visit to housing exhibition, talk with acquaintance and consultation with professionals or salespeople) into their own objective reality rather than wide and more ubiquitous information.
This paper investigates the sprawl caused by New Town Development in Tsukuba city, especially, concerning about Existing Land System in the Urban Control Area. For this objectives, it does empirical analyses based on correlation coefficients and multiple regressions. Empirical results show that the population density in UCA has large influence on the use of Existing Land System.And in Tsukuba city, the system is constantly applied because of the pattern of New Town Development was separated
It is important to maintain farmland in urban area to improve and preserve good urban environment in the context of urban planning. This study focuses on the Agricultural Land Act revised in 1991 and clarifies the management of Agricultural Land in Tokyo-wards. The main findings of this study are: 1) The application of the Green Master Plan and Allotment System is expected for the improvement of Agricultural Land system. 2) Reduction of Agricultural Land with 6.68 ha from 1992 to 1998 in Tokyowards means the crisis of this system. 3) In the local government of Tokyo-wards, the Agricultural Land A ct could not work well to achieve its goal.
In this paper I studied the relations between damage of the great Hanshin-Awaji earthquake and character of residents after the disaster. I analyzed every town districts data. I made and used Damage Index (DI) in this paper. DI is proportion of number of pulled down houses to number of all houses. I showed that about 10% of households lived in DI was more than 60% area after the disaster. Under 50% of DI, DI is becoming the larger, the proportion of number of private rented houses increases. And more than 50% of DI, public rented houses included temporary houses became the greater. Because the area where DI was over 50% many private rented houses were destroyed.
This article deals with a new method of housing and community design. Starting with a review of recent literature on Sociology, Anthropology, Psychology and Business Management, it attempts to develop the Scenario Planning. Its characteristics are model scenarios reconstructed by life stories gathered from interviews with residents. In conclusion, it suggests a new profession Scenario Planner is needed for housing and community design based on residents' life planning.
The study presented here specifically focuses on “garden-house” and “a house for the music”, in the NEXT21, the experimental housing. This study is about the way of life and the transactionalism between dweller and dwelling.
This study attempts to analyze the social housing organizations of four foreign countries; the United Kingdom, the United States of America, Germany and France. The ratio of social housing in the all housing units varies from 2% in USA to 23% in UK. Although Public housing is decreasing in USA and in UK, NPO sector is increasing. Public budged to social housing is about half of development cost except France.
When “Housing with Proper Environment” plans (HOPE plans) are projected or promoted, the intermediate organizations connecting citizens, the private enterprise and the local government are organized sometimes. This paper aims to clarify the sort, the actual conditions and the problems of these intermediate organizations of HOPE plans through a questionnaire survey. As aresult, it is concluded that a lot of organizations have the same problems as follows; 1) the problems of financial resources, 2) difficulties of sustainable activities, 3) unfamiliarity and limited popularity acceptance and spread.
This paper adds an error correction term to VAR model, using Granger's representaion theorem, to investigate the possibilities that the macro economic variables have short term and long term effects on land prices, and that these variables are in mutually dependent relationships. The land prices in the commercial district and the residential district are estimated individually. The estimated models are statistically examined using Dickey-Fuller test and Johansen's likelihood ratio test. A notable feature of this paper is that it puts “zero” value restrictions on a part of coefficient matrix. The results of the analyses show that the land prices of the commercial district and the residential district are both affected by the corporate profits, the money supply, and the interest rate in the long run equilibrium.
In this paper, we prove the equilibrium quantitics of remtal house mafket are reduced by the tenant protection low if there exists asymmetric information about tenure's recontract probability. The tenant protection low causes the upward shift of demand function depending on the recontract probability of marginal tenant bua neighborhood of the equilibrium quantities. The upward shift of the supply function by the low, in contrast, depends on the mean recontract probability of tenants who are willing to borrow the house under the first period market rent. As a result of the asymmetric shift of the demand and supply function, the equilibrium quantifies is reduced.
This paper deals with the trend of a condominium supply from 1975 to 1996 in Yokohama City. The outcomes of the analysis are as follows; 1) In Yokohama City, the number of provided condominiums accounts for almost 10 percent of the total number of houses. The condominium has become popular style as a dwelling. 2) The condominiums in the central area are generally small scale in terms of the site area, the dwelling size and the number of houses in each building. On the other hand, the condominiums in suburban area have the opposite characteristics.
In the early 1990s, when the land prices were inflated, the local government of Tokyo Special Ward established the Housing Ordinances to indicate the principles of a housing and residential environment policy, methods for systematizing the policy with regard to policies in related areas, and the contents of the policy itself. However, the actual roles played by these Housing Ordinances in the housing and residential environment policy have not been clear. Therefore, attention was focused on the Housing Ordinances of the Tokyo Special Ward in this study, in order to clarify the following: 1. Roles played by the Ordinances as indicated in questionnaires collected from local governments 2. The practical implementation of the Housing Ordinances in terms of: (1) Constructing a framework for the housing and residential environment policy, (2) Providing a secure institutional foundation for the policy, (3) Systematizing the policy, and (4) Other roles in relation to the regional development policy.
This paper is a preliminary survey study for planning the local minimum of housing standards. Study area is Changryung-Gun Kyungsangnam-Do in Korea. 482 questionnaires were analyzed. The specific results are;(1) Average persons per household are 4.88, uch more than Changryung-Gun's,(2) The conventional type of housing is (2-3 rooms+Gosil+Buoku),(3) Owner-occupied, apartment houses, one-household living type is a type which holds the best housing standards, while rental and two or more households co-livings type is the worst.
Regulations about rented houses in Germany is similar to Japan. Accordingly, it is important for considering the tenant protection system to examine judicial precedents in Germany. The Federal Court of Constitution affirmed that tenant protections are necessary, and legislation can determine the protection system. When a landlord has reasonable and understandable reason for his own use, he can annul the lending contract, and his distressed situation is not necessary. On the other hand, a tenant in severe conditions can raise an objection. These German system will be very helpful for the legislation in Japan.
This study is a rebuilding case study and this purpose to investigate the paradigm concerning the public housing reprodudion.It can be understood that the plan condition for rebuilding the public housing “Graying”, “Decline of the conmotmity”, etc. is necessary. Details of the plan condition and the plan condition which gives priority are differed in each case.The designer understands these and it is taken into the plan, it is not easy to think in pulling out the relation among subjects of “Administration”, “Designer”, and “Resident”.This study is considered to these plan conditions including “Relations among subjects” and “Reconstructive criteria”, etc. And then, paradigm's factors has “a succession of former living style”, “a storage continuation of a housing complex”, “a comnimity formation”, and so on. Well, the rehuilding case with the public housing is pulled out for an architectural magazine 20 years, and they are analyzed.As a result, the reconstructive paradigm designer'saspect with the reconstructive project was obtained.
This paper is one of a series of studies which make it a goal that we should grasp some planning conditions to improve the living environment from the viewpoint of the renewal process of the low-rised residential area changing with higher density, where had been formed comparatively good living environment. We have clarified some conditions to arrange common space inside the development site, through the analysis of the living activities in the common space, and the conscious evaluation of that by the resident.
Request-based replotting of land readjustment projects allows landowners to apply for the replotted land in designated areas. There are numerous examples of this practice, some of them are statutory, the others are nonstatutory. This article discusses and clarifies legal issues involved in the latter in relation to socalled “correspondence rule”. It also proposes a new statute with a general system of request-based replotting.
Making District Plans causes various kinds of benefits by improving urban environmental conditions. But it is uncertain if those benefits be realized, therefore ordinal hedonic approach cannot be used to evaluate the benefits in this case. This paper proposes a method of hedonic approach to evaluate those benefits and shows that the sum of the benefits. by making District Plans with Different FAR by Use and Improving Street Views are evaluated as 150 thousand yen per 1 meter square.
This article provides a definition of linkage, classification of linkage programs from the viewpoints of both local governments and developers, example of each type of linkage. From the viewpoint of local governments, the linkage programs can be classified into five groups based on (1) rationale,(2) direct or indirect link,(3) mandatory or voluntary base, and (4) settlement method of contents and amount of contribution. From the viewpoint of developers, they are classified into three groups based on (1) mandatory or voluntary base, and (2) settlement method of contents and amount of contribution.