This paper reports how Japanese 4 local governments, which are Uji-shi in Kyoto, Kawagoe-shi in Saitama pre., Chofu-shi and Machida-shi in Tokyo, have changed surplus classrooms in public schools to rooms for welfare programs. In Japan, surplus classrooms in public schools had not changed with ease for the purpose of welfare utilization. They have applied the national model project for decentralization to solve the problem and achieved the space effects and cost effects. To achieve the effects, several sections which are related with the project should cooperate each other, furethermore educational sections should understand better the educational effects that students relate to the elderly.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the living activities of the residents in Imported Houses which are imported directly from Europe and the U. S. A, and find new living style through them. This paper analyzed the feature of the plan formation in Imported Houses. The following results were obtained: 1. When the houses of Imported Housing Village are classified into “ready-made (high-grade)”, “order-made” and “ready-made (popular)”, the plan formation of “ready-made (high-grade)” is analogous to American houses both in area and plan type. The “order-made” is analogous to Japanese houses in plan type, and also “ready-made (popular)” in area. 2. The plan formation of ready-made (high grade) houses is typical in the plan type “LDK-1-F”. All the public rooms are connected in a circle with themselves and then “Circulation Plan” is formed accordingly.
The Hanshin Awaji Great Earthquake was an city-type disaster, which strongly appealed to the public how insufficient the improvement of housing environment in dense city areas. On the other hand, as seen in the spectrum of problems in suffered dense city areas, “hollowing out” phenomena became manifest in the reconstruction process. The phenomena was attributed to the social system, a manifestation which resulted from an interweave of economical, legally financial, social and cultural conditions where have delayed the improvement. In what follows, to examine structural problems underlying the “hollowing out”, I will analyze conditions for reconstruction, noticing individual actions of housing reconstruction, and comparing households who could repair their houses on their own with households who could not. In section 1, I will clarify the following points: states of density in research areas; conditions of damage occurrence; macro characteristics of the situation in the housing reconstruction. In section 2, I will deal with elements which have effects upon the decision-making of individual housing reconstruction, taking their process into consideration. In section 3, I will analyze conditions for reconstruction from perspectives of economical power, utilization of legal system and social relations, individual consciousness of housing.