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全文: "外套膜"
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  • 柴田 松太郎
    地球科学
    1982年 36 巻 3 号 ii-iib,iii
    発行日: 1982/05/25
    公開日: 2017/07/26
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
  • 外套膜が分泌する粘液の酸性多糖体
    和田 浩爾, 古橋 保
    日本水産学会誌
    1971年 37 巻 1 号 13-17
    発行日: 1971/01/25
    公開日: 2008/02/29
    ジャーナル フリー
    Sulfomucopolysaccharide or acid mucoprotein with sulfate group is detected in mantle mucus of some bivalves4-7), and is considered to act as a calcium carrier and provide calcium concentration high enough for the growth of shell minerals at the site of mineralization4). Histochemical and biochemical studies have suggested that the inner and outer mucus of the mantle of Pinctada fucata show metachromasia on staining with toluidine blue and are very similar to each other in their amino acid compositions1). If the acid mucous substances play the above-mentioned functional role in the calcium metabolism of molluscs, the mucus does not always form a shell. To answer this quesion, biochemical analysis of the acid polysaccharide was made on the inner and outer mucus of the mantle of Pinctada fucata and Chlamys nobilis.
    Inner mucus adhered on the inner surface of the mantle and outer mucus secreted between the mantle and shell were collected with an injector. In each case the dry mucus obtained by addition of ethyl alcohol was digested with “pronase” at pH 8.0 and 50°C for 72 hours and subsequently with trypsin at pH 7.5 and 37°C for 72 hours. Acid polysaccharide was then separated by the cetyl pyridinium chloride treatment and analysed as described in the preceding paper2).
    The amount and chemical composition of fraction A containing acid mucopolysaccharide are shown in Tables 1 and 2. The fraction contains a relatively large amount of sulfuric ester and a little amount of protein, but not chondroitine sulfate, as shown by paper electrophoresis. Galactosamine, glucosamine, galactose and glucose are detected in fraction A of both the inner and outer mantle mucus of Pinctada fucata by paper chromatography (Table 3). The fraction seems to be composed of sulfomucopolysaccharide or sulfated polysaccharide-protein complex.
    From these results, it may be concluded that the presence of the acid mucous substance with sulfate group is necessary to induce shell mineralization though it does not always induce it.
  • イケチョウガイ各器官のCa45集積及び排出
    堀口 吉重
    日本水産学会誌
    1957年 22 巻 12 号 747-751
    発行日: 1957/04/25
    公開日: 2008/02/29
    ジャーナル フリー
    To clarify the mechanism of the shell and pearl formations, the author investigated the meta-bolism of Ca in Hyriopsis schlegeli (MARTENS) by using Ca45, as a tracer.
    The accumulation and the disappearance of Ca45 in various organs of Hyriopsis schlegeli (MARTENS) are shown in Table 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6.
    From the results, it was found that the greater part of the absorbed Ca45 is concentrated in the gill and the gill predominates in the organs as to the disappearance of Ca45.
    Furthermore, it was presumed that the mantle, receiving Ca45 from other organs (perhaps, the gill), precipitates it to the shell.
    Turn over rate of the mantle of Hyriopsis schlegeli (MARTENS) was about same level as that of Anodonta lauta MARTENS and about one-fifth of Crassostrea virginica.
  • アサリ外套膜外液のホスファターゼについて
    石原 忠, 保田 正人
    日本農芸化学会誌
    1968年 42 巻 9 号 553-557
    発行日: 1968年
    公開日: 2008/11/21
    ジャーナル フリー
    これまで酵素学的考察の行なわれていない貝類の外套膜外液に数種の酵素が存在することを確認した.そのうちアサリのボスファターゼについて内臓部に存在するものとの比較において次の結果をえ,内臓部とは異なる性質をもったものであることを知った.
    (1) アサリの各部位から抽出した粗酵素液中にはpH 4.1およびpH 9.7に至適pHを持つ,酸性およびアルカリ性ホスファターゼが存在するが,外套膜外液中には酸性ホスファターゼは全く見られず,pH 7.7に至適PHを持つ中性に近いアルカリ性ホスファターゼのみが存在した.
    (2) 外套膜外液のホスファターゼは内臓部のアルカリ性ホスファターゼと同様,基質特異性としてPh-Pをよく分解するが,その程度は外套膜外液の方がはるかに強かった.
    (3) 外套膜外液のホスファターゼと内臓部のアルカリ性ホスファターゼは10-3MのEDTAにより阻害され,Mg2+,Ca2+,Ba2+でわずかに活性化される点は一致するが,Zn2+,Mn2+,Co2+によっては,前者では活性化され,後者は逆に阻害された.このうちCo-6による外套膜外液酵素の活性化は著しい.
    (4) グリシン,アラニンは内臓のアルカリ性ボスファターゼを阻害するが,外套膜外液のホスファターゼには影響をあたえない.
    (5) 外套膜外液のボスファターゼは凍結乾燥により著しく活性が低下するが,処理前後のCo2+の添加は保護および活性化に効果を示した.また加熱による失活に対してもCo2+の添加は有効であった.
    (6)pHとCo2+添加濃度との関係は,濃度により至適pHが変化する,活性化はpH 7.7では10-4Mが最も強いが,pH 8.7では10-3MとpHによってその傾向は変わる.
  • 宮村 光武, 牧戸 二彦
    日本水産学会誌
    1958年 24 巻 6-7 号 441-444
    発行日: 1958年
    公開日: 2008/02/29
    ジャーナル フリー
    In pearl culture, a graft tissue cut from the mantle of a pearl oyster is inserted into the body of the oyster together with a nucleus. The aim of the present experiments was to examine whether or not anatomical parts of the mantle from which graft tissues had been taken would have any effect on the quality of the pearl developed later in the body.
    In the experiments the graft tissue was obtained from different sides of the mantle, the right and the left, each side divided into series of A, B, and C, with subdivisions I, II, and III (Fig. 1). The operated oysters were cultured in an area of Ago Bay for about four months till December 1954. The subsequent inspection, comparing the developed pearls in association with the graft tissues from the specific areas revealed:
    1. In producing thicker layers of the pearl in term of weight, the graft tissues from the right side of the mantle was better than the ones from the left; A series of the tissue were as good as B series and better than C, the tissues from area III were the best followed by the tissues from areas II and I in this order (Table 1).
    2. The occurring frequency of colored pearls differed between the graft tissues from each other side of the mantle, but did not among the tissues from other subdivisions of the mantle (Table 3).
    3. The occurring frequency of lustrous pearls varied between these tissues compared with each other: A and C, III and II, III and I; but no differences was apparent between any other pair of the comparison.
  • 濱田 武士, 山下 成治, 渡部 智彦, 夏目 俊二
    日本水産工学会誌
    1999年 36 巻 2 号 147-152
    発行日: 1999年
    公開日: 2018/06/01
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
    The drilling work of the ear-hanging scallop culture (Patinopecten yessonsis, Jay) makes many mechanical injuries of the mantle. In order to reveal the relationships between the drilling positions and the mechanical injuries, the investigation of the mantle shape at the workshop and the drilling test to the eight positions on the ear part of juvenile scallop (shell hight : 62 -76mm) was conducted. And then the scar on the mantle was exanined by dissecting the sample shells. The results have been shown as the following: 1) Most of the scallops was expanding the mantle to the drilling area 2) the scars were divided into four types of mechanical injury 3) the frequency of the injury-types largely differed depending on the drilling positions.
  • 藤岡 城
    日本水産学会誌
    1964年 30 巻 11 号 877-883
    発行日: 1964/11/25
    公開日: 2008/02/29
    ジャーナル フリー
    Histological observation was made on the reparative process of the mantle of the pearl oyster after a small portion (circular, about 1cm in diameter) of the mantle was resected in the pallial zone or the central area. Oysters used were of 2 to 3 years of age.
    Experiments were done during the months of August to October at water temperature of 25 to 28°C.
    The results obtained are as follows:
    1. Within 2 to 3 days after operation the cut surface is completely covered by the layer of epithelial cells spread out from the cut edges.
    The shell and inner folds are formed on the epithelial layer, about 10 days after operation in case of the pallial zone and 13-17 days in case of the central area. The middle fold appears 13-17 days and 19 days after operation, respectively.
    After about 24 days a groove from which a periostracal substance is secreted is formed by the depression of a part of the outer epidermis, though the folds are still small in the whole shape.
    Observation as a whole suggest that every portion of the mantle has the capacity of regeneration and that of formation of three kinds of folds and a periostracal groove.
    2. Usually within 5 to 7 days after operation regenerating mantle tip spread out from the surrounding cut surface unite with each other.
    On the area of union small pearl sacs (seed pearl-sacs) are frequently formed owing to the depression of the outer epidermal layer.
  • 山口 正男
    水産増殖
    1957年 3 巻 4 号 102-103
    発行日: 1957/08/30
    公開日: 2010/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 小原 寿幸, 高橋 桃子
    廃棄物資源循環学会論文誌
    2016年 27 巻 196-201
    発行日: 2016年
    公開日: 2016/11/11
    ジャーナル フリー
    本研究では,現在水産廃棄物として扱われているホタテガイの外套膜から,酵素剤処理の手法を用いて,アミノ酸に富んだ食用資源を生成することを最終的な目的とする。タンパク質量の分析から,本研究で原料とする外套膜はタンパク質性の資源として十分利用可能と考えられた。また,有害重金属の分析結果から,外套膜には有害重金属はほとんど含まれておらず,安全性に問題ないことが確認できた。ホタテガイ外套膜をタンパク質分解酵素剤 (プロテアーゼ+ペプチダーゼ) を用いて加水分解した結果,水に対する外套膜の可溶化率が著しく向上した。高速液体クロマトグラフィーを用いて可溶化液を分析した結果,遊離アミノ酸量は4倍に向上した。すなわち,本可溶化エキスはアミノ酸に富んだ食用資源として有望であることが示された。有害微生物ならびに有害重金属を測定した結果,本エキスは安全性に問題ないことが確認できた。
  • 辻井 禎, 吉井 義一, 岡田 彌一郎, 井上 義雄, 宮村 光武
    日本水産学会誌
    1954年 20 巻 2 号 107-111
    発行日: 1954/06/25
    公開日: 2008/02/29
    ジャーナル フリー
    In order to understand the mechanism of the shell-and pearl formation, the distribution of P32 and Ca45 was observed in the mantle of the pearl oyster, Pteria (Pinctada) martensii (DUNKER), through radioautography.
    For the study of localization of P32 and Ca45, each 20 specimens were placed in aquarium to which P32 or Ca45 were added. After specimens were breeded in P32 or Ca45 added sea water for periods ranging from two to ten hours, they were placed in the sea water which isotope was not added and then they were washed.
    The localization of P32 in the mantle is illustrated in Fig. 1A, 2 and 3. Fig. 1A shows that P32 is distributed in the periphery of the mantle. Examination of Fig. 2 and 3 which is a photograph of the periphery of the mantle taken at higher magnification, shows that P32 is localized basophilic gland in the mantle.
    Table 1. shows the distribution of P32 in each position of the mantle.
    Fig. 4A shows the localization of Ca45 in the periphery of the mantle, radioautograph of the tissue section of the mantle will be published in near future.
  • 四方 崇文
    日本水産学会誌
    2009年 75 巻 5 号 852-854
    発行日: 2009年
    公開日: 2010/01/17
    ジャーナル フリー
    スルメイカの性成熟に伴う外套筋の酸性プロテアーゼ活性,外套膜の厚み等の変化を調べた。雌雄とも成熟に伴って,酸性プロテアーゼ活性は上昇し,活性の高い個体ほど外套膜は萎縮して薄く,外套筋のタンパク質含量も少ない傾向にあり,タンパク質分解が外套膜の萎縮の要因であると考えられた。成熟に伴う変化を雌雄で比較した場合,外套膜の萎縮は雌で顕著であり,肝臓の萎縮は雄で顕著であった。従って,成熟時には外套膜と肝臓が生殖器官の材料やエネルギー源として利用されるが,両器官の利用バランスは雌雄で異なると考えられた。
  • 和田 浩爾
    貝類学雑誌
    1989年 48 巻 3 号 174-191
    発行日: 1989/10/31
    公開日: 2018/01/31
    ジャーナル フリー
    Mantle allografts and xenografts were implanted into the mantle connective tissue of the three freshwater mussels, Hyriopsis schlegeli, Cristaria plicata and Anodonta calipygos, in order to examine the wound repair process of mantle connective tissue, defense reactions, mantle transplantation immunity, the migration and fine structure of the epithelial cells derived from a mantle graft in pearl-sac formation process. The inner and outer epithelia of a mantle were separated and the inner or outer mantle epithelium alone was inserted into a mantle connective tissue by the usual technique mantle graft transplantation operation using in the freshwater pearl culture industry. The operations were carried out in Lake Biwa in spring at the water temperature of 8℃ to 14℃.
  • 小林 新二郎
    水産増殖
    1957年 3 巻 4 号 45-50
    発行日: 1957/08/30
    公開日: 2010/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 第9報温度上昇による産卵の機構
    岩田 清二
    日本水産学会誌
    1951年 17 巻 3 号 96-97
    発行日: 1951/10/25
    公開日: 2008/02/29
    ジャーナル フリー
    Mytilus edulis contains the gonsd in almost all parts of the mantle except the muscular margin. The spawning could be induced even in this mantle piece by sudden rise of temperature from ca. 7°C to ca. 15°C. Numerous mature eggs were discharged from the cut ends of genital canal after about 1 hour of temperature rise. This spawning may be considered due to the increased permeability of the ovarian epithelium. The enhanced permeab ility may be supposed to alkalify temporally the interior of cells and thus the discharge will be induced just like the case to bathe the mantle in ammoniacal sea water.
  • 32PによるアコヤガイのP代謝について
    堀口 吉重
    日本水産学会誌
    1960年 26 巻 7 号 716-720
    発行日: 1960/07/25
    公開日: 2008/02/29
    ジャーナル フリー
    The author investigated the metabolism of phosphorus in each tissue of Pteria (Pinctada) martensii (DUNKER), using 32P as a tracer. The results are as follows.
    1) As is shown in Figures 1 and 2, the accumulation of 32P to each tissue reached the equilibrium after 30 hrs or more, and the disappearance of 32P required about 11 to 15 hrs as biological half time.
    2) The turn over rate of phosphorus was about 0.017γ/hour/lg. wet tissue in the mantle, 0.015γ/hour/lg. in the gills, 0.011γ/hour/lg. in the viscera and 0.003γ/hour/lg. in the adductor muscle, respectively (see Tables 1 and 2). The quantities of phosphorus metabolixed are as small as about 1/14, 000 to 1/57, 000 when compared with those of calcium metabolized of pearl oyster, which was measured under another conditions10).
    3) It was presumed that the pearl oyster takes the greater part of phosphorus through the digestive system via mouth and the small part of phosphorus through the tissue surface directly.
    4) As one of the reason that the shell contains trace of phosphorus the secretory function of mantle which secrets, phosphorus only in very smaller quantity than calcium and carbon dioxide was supposed.
  • 黒川 忠英, 鈴木 徹, 岡内 正典, 三輪 理, 永井 清仁, 中村 弘二, 本城 凡夫, 中島 員洋, 芦田 勝朗, 船越 将二
    日本水産学会誌
    1999年 65 巻 2 号 241-251
    発行日: 1999/03/15
    公開日: 2008/02/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    アコヤガイの閉殻筋の赤変化を伴う大量へい死現象の人為的再現手法と, その病理組織学的診断手法の開発を行った。赤変異常貝の外套膜片の健常貝への移植および健常貝と赤変異常貝との同居飼育により, 赤変異常が再現された。よって, 赤変異常は感染症による可能性が極めて強い。また, 外套膜と閉殻筋の病変が, その病理組織学的診断指標として有効と判断された。
  • 林 忠彦
    水産増殖
    1955年 3 巻 2 号 54-55
    発行日: 1955/12/20
    公開日: 2010/03/10
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 岡田 光貴, 末岡 裕一郎, 中西 大輔, 大須賀 公一
    日本機械学会論文集
    2019年 85 巻 880 号 19-00151
    発行日: 2019年
    公開日: 2019/12/25
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/12/04
    ジャーナル フリー

    This paper is concerned with the demonstration of scallop-like swimming with the aid of robot toy; using jet propulsion by clapping the shells quickly. Previous works from biological approach have indicated what structures contributes to generate the jet propulsion. This paper tries to perform quick underwater locomotion by mimicking the structures of scallop based on constructive approach: development of scallop-like robot with autonomous generation of jet propulsion. After designing the structure and actuation mechanism by mimicking the scallop, we focus on the effect of the mantle property on swimming. Firstly we confirm that developed robot can perform scallop-like swimming. Secondly we also compare the swimming speed by changing the property of designed mantles.

  • 第5報切り出した外套膜片から成熟卵を得る方法
    岩田 清二
    日本水産学会誌
    1951年 17 巻 1 号 15-18
    発行日: 1951/08/25
    公開日: 2008/02/29
    ジャーナル フリー
    It has not been ever obtained artificially the mature and fertilizable eggs by any predecessors from the ovary of Mytilus edulis. It was successful in obtaining the numerous fertilizable eggs in my experiment, in which the mantle piece was either stimulated by alternative electric current or by bathing it in M/2 KCl solution for longer than 1 minute. At first numerous immature eggs were oozed out of the out end of genital ducts of mantle by its contraction together with the small, cytolysed eggs, follicular epithelium and many granules. The relaxation of mantle began as its contraction ceased, and thus the exudation was stopped gradually. And then the mantle piece began to ooze out numerous maturing and matured eggs after about 30 minutes of stimulation without mingling any other things. The eggs thus obtained were well fertilizable and developed to swimming larvae. Therefore, it is suggested that KCl solution or electric current act as a stimulant to ovary so as to induce eggs to mature.
  • カキの部位別銅・亜鉛蓄積について
    生田 国雄
    日本水産学会誌
    1968年 34 巻 2 号 117-122
    発行日: 1968/02/25
    公開日: 2008/02/29
    ジャーナル フリー
    In the previous paper, the author reported the variation of accumulated quantity of copper and zinc in the whole body of oysters which abnormally accumulated these metals after transplanted to Akamizu Inlet in Nobeoka Bay. In this paper, the author reports the variation of accumulated quantity of copper and zinc in five parts of oysters: mantles, gills, labialpalps, adductor muscle and the rest organs. The curve of abnormal accumulation of copper in the meat of oysters indicated the exponential function type and that of zinc indicated sigmoid type. Normal, abnormal, absolute abnormal and relative accumulation in the parts of oysters transplanted to Akamizu Inlet and normal oysters at Urashiro Bay are discussed here.
    In the previous paper, the normal, abnormal, absolute abnormal accumulation were defined. The relative accumulation used in this paper is defined as follows: Relative accumulation refers to the relation between accumulated quantity of heavy metal in a whole body or in a part or an organ of organism, and quantity in a part or an organ of organism. Relative accumulation has three cases: 1) Tachy-accumulation that is superior to the accumulated quantity of the standard, 2) Brady-accumulation that is inferior to the standard, 3) Iso-accumulation that is equal to the standard.
    Oysters which were transplanted to the water area of green oyster, are separatd into the five parts, and we have discussed on the normal, abnormal, absolute abnormal and relative accumulation of copper and zinc in each part of oysters. Obtained results are as follows:
    1) Proceeding of abnormal accumulation of copper and zinc are recognized in each part of oysters. In mantles, gills and labial palps of the five parts the accumulated copper increases evidently on the contrary, in adductor muscle and the rest organs increases hardly. In labial palps increases the accumulated copper extremly.
    2) It seems that the abnormal accumulation that increase continuously the quantity of copper and zinc by abnormal accumulative phenomenon, can not occur without the abilitv of normal accumulation of each part of oysters.
    3) The absolute abnormal accumulation of copper is recognized in each part of oysters, but that of zinc is not recognized. Even negative values were remarked in labial palps and gills.
    4) In both relative normal and abnormal accumulation, the accumulated quantities of mantles, gills and labial palps indicate the tachy-accumulation comparing with that of whole body, and that of adductor muscle and the rest organs indicate the brady-accmulation.
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