The hypothalamus is the center of controlling food intake and energy expenditure by integrating information on energy status, i.e. adiposity and nutrient signals. Especially, two types of neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, anorexigenic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons and orexigenic agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons, play vital roles in regulating feeding and energy expenditure. On the other hand, insulin and leptin are hormones that control food intake via regulating POMC and AgRP expression. FoxO1 is a downstream effecter of insulin signaling and Sirt1 is an NAD+-dependent deacetylase, both of which have been reported to play important roles in the regulation of metabolism in various organs including liver, pancreas, muscle, adipose tissue and hypothalamus. Histological analyses revealed that FoxO1 and Sirt1 are expressed in both AgRP and POMC neurons where FoxO1 localizes to the nucleus in the fasted, while to the cytoplasm in the refed condition. In contrast, hypothalamic Sirt1 protein is decreased in the fasted condition due to increased ubiquitination of Sirt1. In rodents, overexpression of FoxO1 in the hypothalamus by adenovirus microinjection induces hyperphagia and body weight gain, and simultaneous overexpression of Sirt1 suppresses these phenotypes. FoxO1 and the transcription factor Stat3 exert opposing actions on the expression of AgRP and POMC through transcriptional squelching, and Sirt1 suppresses AgRP expression. In conclusion, we propose that FoxO1 and Sirt1 in hypothalamus are key regulators of energy homeostasis and are molecular targets for the development of new strategy of treating obesity.
Interferon-alpha (IFN-α) is widely used in the treatment of viral hepatitis, however, it is known that IFN-α therapy may induce type 1 diabetes. We report here on two cases of chronic viral hepatitis C who developed autoimmune type 1 diabetes during Peg-IFN-α plus ribavirin (RBV) therapy. Case 1: a 48-year-old male with chronic hepatitis C with chronic thyroiditis. The patient’s plasma glucose level was normal and anti-islet autoantibody tests were negative before Peg-IFN-α+RBV therapy. The emergence of glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 autoantibody (GAD65Ab) was observed after five months of treatment. Autoantibodies to insulin and insulinoma-associated antigen-2 (IA-2) also became positive. Eleven months later, thirst and polydipsia occurred with increased fasting plasma glucose level and the patient was diagnosed with type 1A diabetes. Zinc transporter-8 autoantibody (ZnT8Ab) was not detectable at any point. The patient has type 1 diabetes-susceptible HLA-DRB1-DQB1 haplotypes *0405-*0401 and *0901-*0303. Case 2: a 65-year-old male with chronic hepatitis C with type 2 diabetes on insulin treatment. GAD65Ab and IA-2Ab were negative before Peg-IFN-α+RBV therapy, however, nine months later, a single appearance of GAD65Ab was observed. After twelve months, his plasma glucose control worsened rapidly, and he was diagnosed with type 1A diabetes. IA-2Ab and ZnT8Ab were negative throughout the clinical course. His HLA-DRB1-DQB1 haplotypes were *0410-*0402 and *1407-*0503. Both cases showed a unique GAD65Ab epitope (amino acids 360-442). These clinical courses suggest that IFN-α therapy provoked acute islet autoimmunity and onset of type 1 diabetes. Therefore, during IFN-α therapy, patients should be closely monitored for the occurrence of type 1 diabetes.
We analyzed the utility of intraoperative parathyroid hormone (IOPTH) monitoring in minimally invasive surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT). The subjects were the 167 consecutive patients with pHPT performed initial operation with or without IOPTH between January 2000 and December 2006. Patients were divided into 2 groups. A group who underwent surgery without IOPTH monitoring (Group 1; n=87), and a group who underwent surgery with IOPTH monitoring (Group 2; n=80), in which IOPTH was measured at 5, 10, 15 minutes after excision of the abnormal parathyroid gland. Criterion for evaluation as a cure was a drop in intact PTH level of 50% or more from the preoperative baseline value. The overall cure rate in Group 1 was 93.1%. An enlarged parathyroid gland that was consistent with the results of a preoperative imaging study was found in 84 patients (96.6%). The overall cure rate in Group 2 was 97.5%. In 7 of the patients, there was no drop of 50% or more at any of the 3 points in time measured. Two of these patients were found to have had double adenomas, one on each side, during the initial surgery. Three others were eucalcemic and had normal intact PTH values after surgery, and the remaining 2 patients had persistent disease. Although preoperative localization studies are accurate and essential, IOPTH monitoring improves the cure rate of minimally invasive parathyroidectomy. IOPTH monitoring is a valuable adjunct to achieve adequate intraoperative decision-making, recognizing and resecting additional image-negative hyperfunctioning lesions.
Among patient with ACTH-dependent Cushing’s syndrome, about 10-20% of those with ectopic ACTH syndromes (EAS) have occult or unknown tumors. Despite the intensive search for the culprit tumors by dynamic endocrine tests and imaging tests, it is often difficult to localize and confirm the source of occult ectopic ACTH secretion. We report a patient with EAS caused by a small bronchial carcinoid tumor, which was successfully localized by a selective pulmonary arterial sampling for the first time. A 69-year-old woman presented with typical Cushingoid features and elevated plasma ACTH and cortisol levels, which showed lack of circadian rhythm, no suppression by high-dose dexamethasone, and no response to CRH stimulation. No mass lesion was detected by pituitary MRI, and inferior petrosal sinus sampling showed no central to peripheral ACTH gradient. Although CT scan of the chest revealed a very small nodule in the right lung, it could not be confirmed by either somatostatin receptor scintigraphy or fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. Selective pulmonary arterial sampling of the wedged blood from a pulmonary artery branch affecting the nodule showed a marked ACTH gradient, and the lobectomy of the right middle lung resulted in dramatic decreases in plasma ACTH and cortisol levels. The resected tumor was diagnosed as a bronchial carcinoid tumor with positive immunostaining for ACTH. Thus, selective pulmonary arterial sampling, because of its more site-selective measurement of hormonal secretion, could be one of the useful tools to localize and confirm the ectopic ACTH production by a small pulmonary tumor.
X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a genetic disease associated with demyelination of the central nervous system, adrenocortical insufficiency and accumulation of very long chain fatty acids. It is a clinically heterogeneous disorder ranging from a severe childhood cerebral form to an asymptomatic form. The incidence in Japan is estimated to be between 1:30,000 and 1:50,000 boys as determined by a nationwide retrospective survey between 1990 and 1999, which found no cases with Addison’s form. We reviewed the medical records of eleven Japanese boys with X-ALD from 1990 to 2010 in our institute. Eight patients were detected by neuropsychological abnormalities, whereas a higher prevalence of unrecognized adrenocortical insufficiency (5/11: 45%) was observed than previously recognized. While no neurological abnormalities were demonstrated in two brothers, the elder brother had moderate Addison’s disease at diagnosis and the presymptomatic younger brother progressed to Addison’s disease six months after the diagnosis of X-ALD. Early detection of impaired adrenal function as well as early identification of neurologically presymptomatic patients by genetic analysis is essential for better prognosis. Addison’s form might be overlooked in Japan; therefore, X-ALD should be suspected in patients with adrenocortical insufficiency.
The aim of this study is to explore beta cell dysfunction and its clinical significance in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We assessed insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in a total of 277 Japanese women between 24 and 27 weeks of pregnancy who underwent a 2 h, 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) because of an abnormal result on a 1 h 50 g oral glucose challenge conducted as part of a standard screening for GDM. Insulin sensitivity was evaluated by an insulin sensitivity index derived from OGTT (ISOGTT), whereas insulin secretion was calculated as a ratio of the total area under the insulin curve to the total area under the glucose curve (AUCins/glu). Beta cell function in relation to insulin sensitivity (i.e. disposition index) was derived from the product of insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion (i.e. AUCins/glu × ISOGTT). In women diagnosed with GDM (n=57), the disposition index was significantly lower than that in those without GDM, irrespective of obesity. The disposition index in women with GDM was significantly correlated with levels of fasting and mean preprandial capillary glucose and HbA1c before initiating insulin therapy (r = -0.45, -0.38, -0.49, respectively). Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between the disposition index and total insulin dosage to achieve glycemic goal (r = -0.41). In conclusion, we demonstrated beta cell dysfunction in Japanese women with GDM irrespective of obesity. The level of beta cell dysfunction in GDM was associated with the severity of glucose intolerance and total insulin dosage required. These findings underpin clinical significance of beta cell dysfunction in GDM.
Serum profiles of lipids and⁄or liver enzymes are established markers for the estimation of insulin resistance and diabetic risk in the non-diabetic middle-aged population. To identify prediabetic markers in young subjects, 110 young male subjects (20-29 years of age) with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) were divided into two groups by median body mass index (BMI), <22.18 (n=55) and ≥22.18 (n=55) kg⁄m2. Indices of insulin sensitivity including HOMA-IR and ISI composite, indices of β-cell function including HOMA-β, insulinogenic index (ΔI30⁄ΔG30) and ΔI30⁄ΔG30⁄ HOMA-IR were calculated. Statistical associations between these parameters and the serum lipid profiles and liver function were evaluated. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT), total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels were inversely correlated with the ISI composite among individuals with BMI ≥22.18 kg⁄m2 but not those with BMI <22.18 kg⁄m2. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that, in Group N, the plasma glucose levels at 60 min (PG60) were inversely correlated with the ISI composite and the insulinogenic index, and were positively correlated with the GGT, TC and TG levels. On the other hand, in Group L, PG60 was correlated with the insulinogenic index, TC and TG levels. In conclusion, elevated levels of GGT, TC and TG are good clinical markers to predict diabetic risks, even in young NGT males. Of these, GGT was the most strongly related factor among subjects with relatively high BMI.
The aim of this study is to present direct evidence for the involvement of CXC chemokine ligand 10 (CXCL10) and CXCR3 in human autoimmune type 1 diabetes. We examined five patients with recent-onset type 1 diabetes and five control subjects without diabetes. Islet cell antibodies or GAD antibodies or both were detected in all five patients. We used double-immunofluorescence to detect the expression of CXCL10 and CXCR3 (the receptor of CXCL10). CXCL10 was detected in the islets of all five patients. Almost all (84.2 ± 10.3 %, mean ± SD) CXCL10-positive cells were insulin-positive in the islet area. CXCL10-positive cells with glucagons, somatostatins or pancreatic polypeptides were not detected at all. CXCL10 expression was not seen in any islet without beta cells. CXCR3 was detected in the islet areas of all five patients. Almost all (80.3 ± 13.4 %, mean ± SD) CXCR3-positive cells were CD3-positive T cells. Our study showed that CXCL10 was expressed in the remaining beta cells, and the infiltrating T cells expressed CXCR3, in pancreatic islets of patients with recent-onset type 1 diabetes. The interaction of CXCL10 and CXCR3 would contribute to the selective destruction of beta cells in the development of type 1 diabetes.
Sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) is the key molecule concentrating iodide in the thyroid gland. The first-described human NIS (hNIS) mutation to cause a complete iodide transport defect was the T354P mutation. The Thr-354 lies in the midst of the putative ninth transmembrane segment which is well-conserved within the members of the SLC5A transporter family. Here we have investigated the molecular function of Thr-354 using site-directed mutagenesis and found that T354S and T354A mutations result in significantly decreased iodide transport activity, 50 % and 2 % of wild-type hNIS. Our findings indicate that whereas Thr-354 is indispensable for the complete NIS activity, the β-hydroxyl group accounts for half, and the α-helical structure alone contributes for one-fiftieth of wild-type hNIS activity.
Patients with dyslipidemia and advanced renal failure are at markedly increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of ezetimibe administration to patients with endstage renal failure (ESRF) who are undergoing hemodialysis. Ezetimibe at 10 mg/day was given to 20 patients for 12 weeks. Efficacy was determined by monitoring lipids, and safety was determined by monitoring clinical and laboratory parameters. We also evaluated the effects of ezetimibe on surrogate markers of cholesterol absorption and synthesis. Compared to baseline values, LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) was reduced by 24.9% (p<0.005) after 12 weeks of ezetimibe administration. Treatment with ezetimibe did not change HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride and HbA1c values but caused a significant reduction in remnant like particles-cholesterol (RLP-C, p<0.05) and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP, p<0.05). Ezetimibe therapy decreased cholesterol absorption markers (campesterol and sitosterol) and increased a marker of cholesterol synthesis (lathosterol). A highly significant correlation was observed between alterations in LDL-C and campesterol levels in response to ezetimibe therapy. No patients reported musculoskeletal symptoms. None of the patients experienced elevations in their creatine kinase or liver transaminase levels. Ezetimibe not only reduced serum LDL-C, but also RLP-C and hsCRP, in ESRF patients. Inhibition of cholesterol absorption by ezetimibe is an important therapeutic option in these patients due to its efficacy and safety.