Obesity can be associated with systemic low-grade inflammation that leads to obesity-related metabolic disorders. Recent studies raise the possibility that the inflammation in hypothalamus, liver and white adipose tissue (WAT) contributes to the pathogenesis of diet-induced obesity. We focus on the role of interleukin (IL)-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine produced from spleen in obesity because it is indicated that obesity decreases the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in spleen. Obesity results in decrease of IL-10 synthesis from spleen, probably due to reduction of B-cells expression by promoting oxidative stress and apoptosis in spleen. Splenectomy (SPX) aggravates the inflammatory response in hypothalamus, liver and WAT. These SPX-induced alterations are inhibited by systemic administration of IL-10. Moreover, in IL-10 deficiency, SPX had little effect on the inflammatory responses in these multiple organs. We show the role of spleen-derived IL-10 on inflammatory responses in obesity.
Patients with adrenal insufficiency (AI) require life-long glucocorticoid (GC) replacement treatment and dose adjustment in stress situations to prevent life-threatening adrenal crises. Herein this study we evaluated the patients’ healthcare situation and their knowledge on AI, comparing various aspects to a prior survey in 209 physicians. Using a questionnaire, we conducted a comprehensive survey among 33 AI patients who were treated at the endocrine outpatient clinics of two University Hospitals in Germany. The majority of AI patients (97%) named their treating physician as main source for information. Overall, 89.7% of interviewees were satisfied with their medical treatment; however, about 1/3 reported controversies with healthcare professionals regarding GC replacement in various situation. Two thirds of AI patients increased their substitution dose temporarily within the last 12 months. However, not all patients had an emergency ID, and only 64.5% an emergency kit. None of the interviewed patients identified the need for adjustment in all given situations correctly. Almost 80% of patients did not correctly identify all symptoms of GC over- and under-replacement. Interestingly, we found no significant differences between patients and physicians regarding specific aspects of GC replacement. We showed that: (i) AI patients have some knowledge gaps on modalities and adequacy of GC replacement therapy; (ii) long-term management of patients with AI remains a challenge requiring an experienced specialist; and (iii) further education of physicians as primary source of information is necessary. Additional education may help AI patients to empower them to adequate self-treatment.
We attempted to identify the predictors of an inadequate hypoglycemia in insulin tolerance test (ITT), defined as a blood glucose level higher than 2.8 mmol/L after insulin injection, in Japanese patients with suspected or proven hypopituitarism. A total of 78 patients who had undergone ITT were divided into adequate and inadequate hypoglycemia groups. The relationships between the subjects’ clinical parameters and inadequate hypoglycemia in ITT were analyzed. Stepwise logistic regression analysis identified high systolic blood pressure (SBP) and high homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) as being independent factors associated with inadequate hypoglycemia in ITT. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed the cutoff value for inadequate hypoglycemia was 109 mmHg for SBP and 1.4 for HOMA-IR. The areas under ROC curve for SBP and HOMA-IR were 0.72 and 0.86, respectively. We confirmed that high values of SBP and HOMA-IR were associated with inadequate hypoglycemia in ITT, regardless of the degree of reduction of pituitary hormone levels. Furthermore, the strongest predictor of inadequate hypoglycemia was obtained by using the cutoff value of HOMA-IR. Our results suggest that HOMA-IR is a useful pre-screening tool for ITT in these populations.
Leptin and visfatin are implicated in breast cancer risk but studies accounting for bioavailability of leptin are sparse. Reports on the association of leptin gene (LEP) and leptin receptor gene (LEPR) polymorphisms with breast cancer are also inconsistent. Only a very few studies have examined biochemical and genetic variables concomitantly in the same cohort. A matched pairs study was carried out to ascertain whether plasma leptin, soluble leptin receptor, free leptin index (leptin/soluble leptin receptor), serum visfatin and selected LEP and LEPR polymorphisms are risk factors for sporadic breast cancer. Newly diagnosed sporadic breast cancer patients (N=80) were matched for age, body mass index (BMI) and menopausal status with healthy controls. Plasma leptin, soluble leptin receptor and serum visfatin were measured by enzyme-immunoassay. LEP -2548 A/G and LEPR K109R, LEPR Q223R polymorphisms were determined by genotyping. Leptin (p=0.0234), leptin/BMI (p=0.0468), free leptin index (p<0.0001) and visfatin (p=0.0002) were significantly higher and soluble leptin receptor (p<0.0001) was significantly lower in patients. LEPR gene K109R A/G polymorphism increased breast cancer risk (odds ratio: 4.125). Multivariate analysis confirmed that leptin, soluble leptin receptor, free leptin index and G109 (R109) allele of the LEPR gene K109R polymorphism are risk factors for breast cancer. When stratified by menopausal status free leptin index and soluble leptin receptor remained as risk factors irrespective of menopausal status while LEPR gene K109R A/G polymorphism remained as a risk factor only in the postmenopausal group.
Evidence has shown that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was involved in the progression to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and development of insulin resistance. Mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) is a novel secreted protein upregulated by ER stress. This study aimed to assess serum level of MANF in normal glucose tolerance (NGT) participants and newly diagnosed prediabetic and T2DM patients. A total of 257 participants with NGT, newly diagnosed prediabetes or T2DM were recruited from Yinchao and Hangtian communities of Chengdu, Sichuan, China. Serum MANF level was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The mean age for the 257 participants (147 females) was 62±8 years (range 44-78): 71 with NGT, 115 with newly diagnosed prediabetes and 71 with T2DM. Mean serum MANF level was significantly higher with newly diagnosed prediabetes and T2DM than NGT (2.89±1.09 and 3.03±1.73 vs 2.13±1.37 ng/mL, both p<0.001). MANF level was not correlated with insulin sensitivity indexes (homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance [HOMA-IR], Matsuda Index and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index [QUICKI]) for NGT and T2DM participants but was correlated with such indexes for prediabetes patients. We concluded that serum MANF level was higher in patients with newly diagnosed prediabetes and T2DM than in NGT controls. MANF appears to be associated with Matsuda Index, QUICKI and HOMA-IR in prediabetes patients.
We aim to explore effects of Ketotifen on metabolic profiles, inflammation and oxidative stress. Sprague Dawley (SD) male rats were randomly divided into normal control group (NC) and experimental groups, and experimental group rats were fed with high-sugar and fat diet for 6 weeks. Then, experimental group rats were divided into diabetes group (DM) and ketotifen treatment group (KT). KT group was given ketotifen via Intragastric for 8 weeks with the dosage of 0.09 mg/kg/d. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) was measured using glucose oxidase-phenol amino phenazone method. Fasting insulin (FINS), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were quantified by spectrophotometer method. Before Ketotifen administration, compared with NC group, DM and KT groups showed significantly high levels of body weight, FPG, FINS, HOMA-IR, TC, TG, LDL, IL-6, TNF-α and MDA, and lower levels of HDL and SOD (All p <0.05). After 4 weeks of Ketotifen administration, levels of body weight, FPG, FINS, HOMA-IR, TC, TG, LDL, IL-6, TNF-α in KT group decreased significantly, and levels of HDL and SOD elevated significantly (All p <0.05). After 8 weeks of Ketotifen administration, levels of body weight, FPG, FINS, HOMA-IR, TC, TG, LDL, IL-6, TNF-α and MDA in KT group decreased more obviously, and levels of HDL and SOD elevated significantly further (All p <0.05). Ketotifen improved metabolic profiles, and ameliorated status of inflammation and oxidative stress.
To date, several clinical trials have compared differences in glucose fluctuation observed with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, most patients were assessed for limited periods or during hospitalization. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of switching from sitagliptin to vildagliptin, or vice versa, on 12-week glucose fluctuations using self-monitoring of blood glucose in the standard care setting. We conducted a multicenter, prospective, open-label controlled trial in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. Thirty-two patients were treated with vildagliptin (50 mg) twice daily or sitagliptin (50 mg) once daily and were allocated to one of two groups: vildagliptin treatment for 12 weeks before switching to sitagliptin for 12 weeks, or vice versa. Daily profiles of blood glucose were assessed several times during each treatment period, and the mean amplitude of glycemic excursions and M-value were calculated. Metabolic biomarkers such as hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), glycated albumin, and 1,5-anhydroglucitol were also assessed. With vildagliptin treatment, mean amplitude of glycemic excursions was significantly improved compared with sitagliptin treatment (57.9 ± 22.2 vs. 68.9 ± 33.0 mg/dL; p=0.0045). M-value (p=0.019) and mean blood glucose (p=0.0021) were also lower with vildagliptin, as were HbA1c, glycated albumin, and 1,5-anhydroglucitol. There were no significant differences in other metabolic parameters evaluated. Reduction of daily blood glucose profile fluctuations by vildagliptin was superior to that of sitagliptin in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes.
Recent studies imply that euthyroid Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) might be related with impaired HRQoL, depression and anxiety. Ninety three patients with euthyroid HT and 31 age- and gender-matched euthyroid control subjects were enrolled into this study. SF-36 questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory tests were used for evaluating HRQoL, depression and anxiety. Beck Depression Inventory scores were higher in patients with HT compared to control subjects (7.5 (4.0-14.75) vs. 5.0 (2.25-9.0), p=0.008). Beck Anxiety Questionnaire scores were also higher in patients with HT than controls (9.50 (5.0-17.0) vs. 5.0 (2.0-11.75), p=0.021). In SF-36 questionnaire; physical functioning (26.0 (20.0-28.0) vs. 29.0 (26.0-30.0), p=0.038), general health (16.4 (13.4-20.4) vs. 19.4 (16.3-21.2), p=0.026) and mental health (20.5 (16.0-23.0) vs. 23.0 (21.0-25.0), p=0.001) scores were lower in patients with HT than control subjects. There were no significant differences between patients with HT under levothyroxine replacement therapy compared to those without therapy in terms of depression and anxiety scores and components of SF-36 questionnaire. Beck Depression Inventory scores were positively correlated with TSH (r=0.250, p=0.01). In SF-36, role physical (r=0.192, p<0.05) and vitality (r=0.181, p<0.05) were positively correlated with fT4. Role emotional was negatively correlated with TSH (r=-0.185, p<0.05) and anti-TPO (r=-0.234, p<0.05). Mental health was negatively correlated with anti-TPO (r=-0.287, p<0.01). HRQoL is impaired and depression and anxiety scores are high in patients with euthyroid HT independent of levothyroxine replacement. Therefore, our results indicate that thyroid autoimmunity itself may have an impact on psychological well-being in euthyroid patients with HT.
Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is a nonselective nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor associated with cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. NO regulates placental blood flow, which plays an important role in fetal growth. Many epidemiological studies have disclosed that restricted fetal growth is associated with an increased risk of insulin resistance in adult life. We studied the relationship between ADMA in cord blood and birth size. Nine small for gestational age (SGA) and 32 appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants were studied. Their cord plasma ADMA, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and adipocytokine levels were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The relationship between birth weight and ADMA levels followed a U-shaped curve rather than inverse linear associations expected over a full range of birth weight distribution. ADMA positively correlated with birth weight in the AGA group (p<0.001, R=0.590), and inversely correlated with birth weight in the SGA group (p<0.05, R=-0.741). ADMA inversely correlated with adiponectin (p<0.05, R=-0.289) and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) (p<0.05, R=-0.294) in all subjects, and did not correlate with nitrogen oxides (NOX). Insulin, IGF-1, leptin, adiponectin and QUICKI were lower in the SGA than the AGA group. Plasma ADMA levels in cord blood may be a marker of fetal growth and insulin resistance.
Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) has a high global prevalence. Most SCH patients have mild cases (thyrotropin ≤10 mIU/L). Treatment recommendations for mild SCH are controversial, which raises concerns about the natural history of mild SCH. We aimed to clarify the natural history of mild SCH. This is a prospective population-based study. We measured thyroid function in 11,000 participants in the REACTION study and followed 505 newly diagnosed mild SCH patients aged 40-years or older between 2011 and 2014. Logistic regression analysis was used to seek baseline parameters associated with the natural outcomes of mild SCH. Among 505 mild SCH patients, 221 (43.8%) had persistent SCH, 251 (49.7%) reverted to euthyroidism, and 17 (3.4%) progressed to overt hypothyroidism (OH). Patients with higher baseline total cholesterol (TC, between 201.0-240.0 mg/dL or >240.0 mg/dL vs. <201.0 mg/dL, p = 0.048 and 0.006, respectively) or positive thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb, p = 0.009) had higher risks of progression to OH, while those with higher baseline creatinine (CR, between 0.71-0.80 mg/dL or >0.80 mg/dL vs. ≤0.65 mg/dL, p = 0.031 and 0.004, respectively), higher baseline thyrotropin (≥7 mIU/L, p < 0.001) or older (>60 years vs. ≤50 years, p = 0.012) had lower odds of reverting to euthyroidism. In conclusion, TPOAb and TC seem to be more important predictors of progression to OH than initial thyrotropin, whereas high baseline thyrotropin or CR were negative correlated with reversion to euthyroidism. The prognostic value of TC and CR in mild SCH should be considered.
In 855 Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes receiving once weekly dulaglutide 0.75 mg in 3 phase 3 studies, the effects on efficacy and safety at week 26 (last observation carried forward) were investigated in a post hoc descriptive analysis of subgroups of age (<65 years [young], ≥65 years [elderly]) and body mass index (BMI [<25 kg/m2, ≥25 kg/m2]). The 4 subgroups were as follows: 1) the young/low-BMI subgroup (Y/L) (n = 255); 2) the young/high-BMI subgroup (Y/H) (n = 386), 3) the elderly/low-BMI subgroup (E/L) (n = 137), and 4) the elderly/high-BMI subgroup (E/H) (n = 77). The mean changes from baseline in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and body weight, respectively, were -1.69% and -0.29 kg in the Y/L subgroup; -1.48% and -0.09 kg in the Y/H subgroup; -1.68% and -0.20 kg in the E/L subgroup; and -1.72% and -0.26 kg in the E/H subgroup. The incidences of nausea and hypoglycemia, respectively, were 6.7% and 11.0% in the Y/L subgroup; 7.0% and 8.0% in the Y/H subgroup; 10.2% and 18.2% in the E/L subgroup; and 3.9% and 22.1% in the E/H subgroup. Dulaglutide improved HbA1c regardless of age or BMI; a higher incidence of hypoglycemia was observed in elderly patients compared to younger patients.
Human cytochrome P450 11B2 (CYP11B2) is an essential enzyme in the steroid hormone biosynthesis, which catalyzes the last three reaction steps of the aldosterone synthesis. These reactions comprise a hydroxylation at position C11 of the steroid intermediate deoxycorticosterone yielding corticosterone, followed by a hydroxylation at position C18 yielding 18-hydroxy-corticosterone and a subsequent oxidation of the hydroxyl group at C18, which results in the formation of aldosterone. Alterations in the amino acid sequence of CYP11B2 often cause severe disease patterns. We previously described a procedure for expression and purification of human CYP11B2 employing recombinant E. coli, which allows the rapid characterization of CYP11B2 mutants on a molecular level. This system was now utilized for the examination of the influence of the polymorphism at position 173 in combination with the mutation V386A on the activity of CYP11B2. Our in vitro findings show that the combination of the V386A mutation with the variant CYP11B2 173Arg only slightly reduces the 18-hydroxylase and 18-oxidase activity, whereas the V386A mutation with the CYP11B2 173Lys variant almost abolishes the 18-hydroxylation and 18-oxidation. In both cases the 11-hydroxylase activity is not affected. These findings highlight the importance of the genetic background of an enzyme when regarding the effect of clinical mutations.
Gestational diabetes (GDM) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) share part of pathomechanism and several T2DM susceptibility genes are demonstrated to be associated with GDM. No information on the genetics of GDM, however, was available in Japanese women. In this study, T2DM risk variants (45 single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs] from 36 genes) identified in previous studies were genotyped using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry in a cohort of 171 Japanese women with GDM and 128 normal glucose tolerance (NGT) diagnosed by the new International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group criteria. Of 45 SNPs, three genetic variants were nominally associated with the development of GDM: rs266729 (p = 0.013, odds ratio [OR]: 1.56, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10-2.23) in ADIPOQ, rs10811661 (p = 0.035, OR: 1.46, 95% CI: 1.03-2.08) in CDKN2A/2B, and rs9505118 (p = 0.046, OR: 1.41, 95% CI: 1.01-1.97) in SSR1-RREB1. There was a significant difference in the number of risk alleles of three variants between women with GDM and NGT (3.79 ± 1.33 vs. 3.05 ± 1.41, p = 6.0 × 10-6). In combined analysis of three genetic variants, women with five or more risk alleles had a 7.32-fold increased risk of GDM (p = 5.6 × 10-5, 95% CI: 4.54-11.96), compared with those having no more than one risk allele. Our results suggest several risk variants of T2DM had cumulative effects on the development of GDM in Japanese women.