Endocrine Journal
Online ISSN : 1348-4540
Print ISSN : 0918-8959
ISSN-L : 0918-8959
Volume 47 , Issue 3
Showing 1-22 articles out of 22 articles from the selected issue
  • TOMOHARU OKUBO, MAMORU URABE, HIROSHI TSUCHIYA, KOICHI IWASA, KAZUAKI ...
    2000 Volume 47 Issue 3 Pages 205-214
    Published: 2000
    Released: November 25, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We examined influences of estrogen and progestogen on gene expression of the growth regulatory molecules: platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and proto-oncogene c- myc in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Southern-blotting. VSMC were exposed to estrone-sulfate (E1-S) and medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) to induce differentiation. E1-S inhibited the expression of PDGF-A chain, IL-1, IL-6 and c-myc mRNA, whereas MPA had no effect. Inhibition by E1-S was not affected by treatment combined with MPA. These findings suggest that estrogen modulates these growth regulatory molecules and c-myc gene expression in VSMC but not progestogen. We concluded that estrogen may have a direct atheroprotective effect through inhibition of growth regulatory factors.
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  • MAKOTO DAIMON, SHINJI SUSA, KIYOKO HASEGAWA, HIROSHI YAMAGUCHI, MAMORU ...
    2000 Volume 47 Issue 3 Pages 215-219
    Published: 2000
    Released: November 25, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Changes of serum ceruloplasmin (Cp) levels have been reported in many conditions including diabetes mellitus (DM), in which the serum Cp levels were increased. In this study, we have examined the influence of aging on serum Cp levels in normal individuals and in individuals with DM. Serum Cp levels were measured in 85 outpatients with type 2 diabetes (type 2 DM group) as well as in 71 healthy individuals (control group). All patients recruited for this study were negative for the glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) antibody. The subjects were sub-grouped based on their ages (<55 and 55≤). The serum Cp levels in the control group increased significantly with aging (r=0.325, p<0.0055), while levels in the type 2 DM group did not (r=0.091, p=0.4079). The levels in the type 2 DM group (<55) were significantly higher than those in the control group (<55) (p=0.0029), while the Cp levels in the type 2 DM group (55≤) were not different from those in the control group (55≤) (p=0.4187). An age-related increase of serum Cp levels was observed in normal individuals, but this change was not observed in type 2 DM patients since serum Cp levels in type 2 DM patients of all ages were similar to the levels in normal elderly individuals.
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  • NAOKO CHIKADA, TOSHIHIRO IMAKI, SHOKO HARADA, KISHIKO NAKAJIMA, MITSUH ...
    2000 Volume 47 Issue 3 Pages 221-229
    Published: 2000
    Released: November 25, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity of Lewis rats has been reported to be hyporesponsive to immune challenge, and nitric oxide (NO) has been demonstrated to be involved in the regulation of the HPA axis during the response to immune challenge. The present study investigates the effect of systemic injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on NO production within the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of immature female Fisher-344 (F344) and Lew/N rats (Lew/N), to clarify the pathophysiological role of NO in the dysregulation of the HPA axis in Lewis/N. Intraperitoneal injection of 25mg/kg LPS significantly increased neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) mRNA expression in the PVN of F344 rats, but did not change nNOS mRNA levels in the PVN of Lew/N rats. CRF mRNA levels in the PVN significantly increased in response to LPS injection only in F344 rats. In contrast, inducible NOS (iNOS) mRNA increased similarly in both strains. These results demonstrated a defect of up-regulation of nNOS gene expression in the PVN of Lew/N rats following immune challenge. The defect appears to be associated with the dysfunction of the HPA axis in this strain. An increase in iNOS mRNA may partially restore NO production in the PVN.
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  • DAIKI NAKAOKA, TOSHITSUGU SUGIMOTO, TATSUYA KOBAYASHI, TORU YAMAGUCHI, ...
    2000 Volume 47 Issue 3 Pages 231-237
    Published: 2000
    Released: November 25, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We examined the relationships between serum levels of intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) versus bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine and radius in terms of their preoperative values and of their annual percentage and net changes after parathyroidectomy (PTX) in 44 Japanese patients (14 men and 30 women) with primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT). Lumbar and radial BMD values were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and single photon absorptiometry and were used for evaluating the cancellous and cortical bone mass, respectively. Age- and sex-adjusted value (Z-score) of the radial BMD was significantly lower than that of the lumbar BMD before and after PTX (P<0.05). In preoperative patients, serum levels of both intact PTH and ALP were significantly and negatively correlated with Z-score of the radial BMD (P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively), but not with that of the lumbar BMD. After PTX, serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, ALP, and PTH became normal, and both lumbar and radial BMD values markedly increased over 1 year, with percentage changes of 12.2±1.4% and 11.6±1.6%, respectively, which were larger than those in any other Caucasian study previously documented. Even in patients without osteopenia (Z-score of BMD≥0), lumbar and radial BMD values increased considerably after the operation (9.6±1.9% and 6.7±1.4%, respectively). Annual percentage and net changes in lumbar BMD were significantly and negatively correlated with those in ALP with high correlation coefficients, but those in radial BMD were correlated only with the annual net change in ALP but not with the percentage change. No significant correlations were observed between annual changes in either lumbar or radial BMD and those in intact PTH. Taken together, this study shows that PTX causes dramatic improvements in both the cancellous and cortical bone mass in Japanese pHPT patients regardless of the severity of their osteopenia, and suggests that the cancellous and cortical bones react differently to a preoperative endogenous PTH excess and a high bone turnover rate as well as to the postoperative normalization of a bone turnover rate in the patients.
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  • TETSURO KATAYAMA, HISAKO KYAN, MICHIKO NAKASHIMA, EMILLIANA Y. RAHAYU, ...
    2000 Volume 47 Issue 3 Pages 239-247
    Published: 2000
    Released: November 25, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Activin-A induces increases in FSH secretion, as well as the number of immunoreactive FSH cells, in cultured rat pituitary cells. In this study, we examined whether mechanisms involved in these two actions of activin-A are identical or not, with respect to the involvement of cellular proliferation and of Ca2+-dependent signaling pathways. Treatment with activin-A (25ng/ml) for 48h caused increases in the number of cultured rat anterior pituitary cells that incorporated BrdU, a thymidine analog. The stimulatory effects of activin-A on FSH secretion and on the percentage of immunoreactive FSH cells were, however, not inhibited by the presence of the mitotic inhibitor cytosine arabinoside. On the other hand, the stimulatory effect of activin-A on the percentage of immunoreactive FSH cells was completely blocked in the presence of the Ca2+/calmodulin kinase inhibitor KN-62 or the L-type Ca2+ channel blocker nicardipine. Neither of these inhibitors, however, revealed significant influence on the effect of activin-A on FSH secretion. These results suggest that activin-A exhibits its dual effect on FSH cells without causing cellular proliferation. Furthermore, activin-A appears to induce increases in FSH secretion and enlargement of FSH cell population through distinct intracellular signaling pathways, the former through Ca2+-independent and the latter through Ca2+-dependent mechanisms.
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  • IKUO KAWAMURA, SHIGERU TAKESHITA, MARIKO FUSHIMI, MIYUKI MABUCHI, JIRO ...
    2000 Volume 47 Issue 3 Pages 249-255
    Published: 2000
    Released: November 25, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is an endogenous growth factor which is mainly produced in the liver. The functions of IGF-I can be summarized as growth-promoting and insulin-like metabolic actions. In the present study, the effect of IGF-I on bile flow and bile acid secretion was investigated in rats. In normal rats bile flow was significantly increased by single exogenous administration of IGF-I, arid by 1 week treatment of IGF-I, both bile flow and bile acid secretion were significantly increased. Moreover, to further understand the relationship between IGF-I and bile acid secretion, hypophysectomized rats were next used. We found that the decreases in bile flow and bile acid secretion observed in rats after hypophysectomy, as well as the decrease in the endogenous level of IGF-I in the blood, were partially reversed by 1 week exogenous IGF-I treatment. Overall, this study showed that IGF-I stimulates choleresis associated with an elevation of bile acid secretion in both normal and hypophysectomized rats when exogenously administered, suggesting the importance of IGF-I in the stimulation of choleresis in vivo.
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  • MASAAKI IWAHASHI, RYOSUKE NAKANO
    2000 Volume 47 Issue 3 Pages 257-260
    Published: 2000
    Released: November 25, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We report a case of struma ovarii with hyperthyroidism and elevated serum concentrations of type IV collagen and laminin. Circulating levels of type IV collagen and laminin were measured using specific radioimmunoassays (RIAs) for 7S collagen and the P-1 fragment of laminin, and the basement membrane components in the tumor were investigated by immunohistochemical analysis. Strong immunohistochemical staining specific for type IV collagen and for laminin was observed to be localized in the follicular walls. The serum levels of these antigens, as determined by RIA, were very high before removal of the tumor but decreased rapidly postoperatively. The present findings suggest that struma ovarii produces large amounts of type IV collagen and laminin. In addition, elevated levels of thyroid hormones might enhance the turnover of the basement membrane in various tissues.
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  • HIROYUKI SHIMIZU, FUMIKAZU OKAJIMA, TAKAO KIMURA, KEN-ICHI OHTANI, TAK ...
    2000 Volume 47 Issue 3 Pages 261-269
    Published: 2000
    Released: November 25, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Sphingosine is involved in the regulation of cellular processes as a second messenger in various kinds of cells. Since the possible involvement of sphingosine has not been investigated in pancreatic β-cells, we determined the expression of putative sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptors and the effect of sphingosine on pancreatic β-cell function using a clonal Hamster β-cell line, HIT-T 15 cells and isolated mouse islets. We showed the expression of putative S1P receptors, Edg-3 and AGR16/H218 in HIT-T 15 cells. Ten and 20μM S1P significantly stimulated insulin secretion for 10 minutes in HIT-T 15 cells. Ten μM S1P significantly increased insulin secretion from isolated mouse islets. Ten μM S1P obviously increased intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). Fifty nM nifedipine did not affect the S1P stimulation of insulin secretion in HIT-T 15 cells. Two μM U73122 (phospholipase C inhibitor) completely deleted 10μM S1P-induced stimulation of insulin secretion for 10 minutes, but U73343 (an inactive analogue of U73122) did not. S1P dose-dependently inhibited intracellular cyclic AMP levels. Pretreatment with 100ng/ml pertussis toxin (PTX) partially, but significantly attenuated an increase of insulin secretion by 10μM S1P. These data suggested that PTX-sensitive G-protein-dependent pathway may, at least in part, be involved in an increase of non-glucose stimulated insulin secretion by S1P through the activation of phospholipase C- Ca2+ system.
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  • TORU TAKANO, EIICHI SHIBA, HISATO TADA, HIDEO YOSHIMURA, KYOTARO YOSHI ...
    2000 Volume 47 Issue 3 Pages 271-275
    Published: 2000
    Released: November 25, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A preoperative molecular-based diagnostic technique for thyroid papillary and anaplastic carcinomas was recently developed to detect oncofetal fibronectin (onfFN) messenger RNA (mRNA) in fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) by means of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We report two cases of thyroid tumors, in which cytological diagnosis was not successful but in which RT-PCR analysis provided information that helped to identify the biological features of the tumors. One case could not be diagnosed by aspiration biopsy cytology (ABC) because of poor fixation; however, RT-PCR did detect the expression of onfFN mRNA, which suggested the existence of papillary carcinoma cells. After surgery, this tumor was diagnosed as a papillary carcinoma by histological examination. The other case was diagnosed as a papillary carcinoma by ABC, but onfFN mRNA was not detected in the FNAB by RT-PCR. The neoplasm was diagnosed as a follicular tumor by histological examination. These cases suggest the benefits of combining both genetic and cytological approaches to the examination of FNAB.
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  • MOTOI SOHMIYA, KIMIKO YAMAUCHI, KUNIO KOSHIMURA, YUZURU KATO
    2000 Volume 47 Issue 3 Pages 277-283
    Published: 2000
    Released: November 25, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A 39-year-old man with myotonic dystrophy consulted our hospital for nausea, vomiting and dizziness that occurred after 75g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Reexamination of OGTT revealed remarkable hyperinsulinemia (622μU/ml) followed by reactive hypoglycemia (50mg/dl) and such hypoglycemic symptoms as nausea, vomiting, dizziness and palpitation. DNA analysis of the circulating lymphocytes revealed increased (1, 500 times) number of cytosine-thymine-guanine (CTG) trinucleotide repeats in myotonic dystrophy protein kinase (DM kinase) gene. Gel chromatographic analysis of the plasma in combination with sensitive enzyme immunoassay of insulin revealed that the ratio of proinsulin to total immunoreactive insulin was elevated at fasting (12.9%), and was decreased to 8.9% at 60min after glucose administration. These findings may indicate that biologically active authentic insulin was predominantly secreted after glucose administration in the present case. This is the first case report of myotonic dystrophy with hyperinsulinemia associated with reactive hypoglycemia induced by oral glucose administration.
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  • TOSHIHIRO TAKAO, KOICHI ASABA, HIROAKI TANAKA, REIKO MATSUMOTO, WAKAKO ...
    2000 Volume 47 Issue 3 Pages 285-291
    Published: 2000
    Released: November 25, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We report a case of a 42-year old male patient with diabetes insipidus followed by anterior hypopituitarism associated with thrombasthenia. The patient had been diagnosed with thrombasthenia since the age of 19. He was admitted and diagnosed as diabetes insipidus in 1995. Although T1-weighted image of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed empty sella and partial pituitary stalk hypertrophy, the anterior pituitary functions were normal at that time. Three years later, he was re-admitted after an episode of general malaise and impotence in 1998. Endocrinological studies revealed adrenal insufficiency, hypothyroidism and hypogonadism. T1-weighted image of MRI demonstrated the thickening of pituitary stalk and neurohypophysis. Analysis of anti-pituitary anti-bodies by immunoblotting identified a major band at 61.5kDa. The diabetes insipidus was controlled by desmopressin acetate and the shrinkage of pituitary stalk was seen after hormonal replacement therapy including glucocorticoid and thyroid hormone. We suggested that this case represented lymphocytic infundibuloneurohypophysitis, in which a chronic inflammatory process occurred in infundibulum and/or neurohypophysis and that hypopituitarism developed possibly due to damage to the pituitary portal vessels caused by a thickened pituitary stalk, although a pituitary biopsy was not done because of the risk of bleeding in thrombasthenia. The pituitary autoantibodies in sera from patients with hypopituitarism may be helpful to characterize the patient with lymphocytic hypophysitis.
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  • KAZUMI URA, ISAO MORIMOTO, KENICHI WATANABE, KAZUYOSHI SAITO, NOBUYUKI ...
    2000 Volume 47 Issue 3 Pages 293-302
    Published: 2000
    Released: November 25, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Interleukin-4 (IL-4) inhibits the spontaneous and stimulated bone resorption resulting from the inhibition of osteoclast formation, as well as osteoclastic activity. Since IL-13 shares some biological properties with IL-4, it was recently reported that IL-13 inhibits bone resorption. The present study was designed to determine the effects of murine IL-4 (IL-4) and murine IL-13 (IL-13) on the murine osteoblastic cell line MC3T3-E1. IL-4 and IL-13 stimulated 3H-thymidine incorporation in the MC3T3-E1 cells and its proliferation in dose dependent manners. A spontaneous increase in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in the cells after plating was inhibited by IL-4 or IL-13, and both cytokines blunted an increase in ALP activity by human parathyroid hormone (PTH) (1-34). PTH-stimulated cyclic AMP (cAMP) production was inhibited by pretreatment with IL-4 and IL-13 for 48 hr in dose dependent manners. Pretreatment with IL-4 and IL-13 for 48hr caused a decrease in PTH-induced cAMP production at any stimulatory concentration. However, the effective dose (ED50) was unchanged by the pretreatment with these cytokines. Pretreatment with IL-4 and IL-13 did not modulate cAMP generation by forskolin. In contrast, cAMP generation by PGE2 is greater in the cells treated with the cytokines compared to those without the cytokines. These results indicate that IL-4 and IL-13 act on MC3T3-E1 cells in the same manner, stimulating cell proliferation, but inhibiting cell differentiation. The inhibition of osteoblast differentiation by IL-4 and IL-13 may be associated with a decrease in PTH actions on osteoblasts.
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  • KAZUHIKO ASANUMA, AKIHITO NISHIO, NOBUO ITOH, YOSHIO KASUGA, JUN AMANO
    2000 Volume 47 Issue 3 Pages 303-307
    Published: 2000
    Released: November 25, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We report a case of branchial cleft-like cysts (intrathyroidal lymphoepithelial cysts) associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Palpation did not detect any nodules. Multiple cystic lesions were detected in the lateral side of the thyroid bilateral lobes by imagings of an I-123 scintigram, T1-201 scintigram, sonography, and computerized tomography. Sonography displayed multiple cysts with strong echogenic spots in the cystic fluid. Repeated fine needle aspiration biopsies of the cysts consistently revealed only normal lymphocytes. Although these lesions could not be given diagnosis, subtotal thyroidectomy leaving the intact isthmus was performed. Microscopic findings revealed multiple branchial cleft-like cysts lined by flattened epithelial cells. Surrounding the epithelial lining were dense lymphoid follicles with large, reactive germinal centers. The remaining thyroid parenchyma showed Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Multiple branchial cleft-like cysts should be considered when sonographic examination reveals multiple cysts in the lateral side of the bilateral lobes, and fine needle aspiration biopsy displays only normal lymphocytes. To our knowledge, this is the first case of branchial cleft-like cysts associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis reported in Japan.
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  • TARO WASADA, HIROYUKI KUROKI, HIROKO ARII, AKIKO SATO, KOZO KATSUMORI, ...
    2000 Volume 47 Issue 3 Pages 309-316
    Published: 2000
    Released: November 25, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    To investigate the contribution of the liver to whole-body insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, we analyzed the early decline (slope “a”) in the baseline plasma glucose level following acute hyperinsulinemia in the initial phase of a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp study, rather than using an isotope-dilution method. Slope “a” was comparable among groups of diabetic and non-diabetic subjects, and did not correlate well with glucose infusion rate (GIR), an index of peripheral (primarily skeletal muscle) insulin resistance. In contrast, slope “a” was significantly lower in obese (BMI>25) type 2 diabetic patients compared with their non-obese counterparts, consistent with the general belief that obesity is a condition of insulin resistance in liver as well as in peripheral tissues. A subset of six insulin-resistant (nearly zero GIR) type 2 diabetic patients (pubertal adolescents) demonstrated a markedly blunted slope “a”. Their insulin resistance (GIR) substantially recovered concomitant with an increase in slope “a” after pretreatment with somatostatin analogue in two cases studied, suggesting possible suppression of hepatic glucose production through lowering of plasma glucagon concentrations. Furthermore, slope “a” correlated significantly (r=-0.480, p<0.0001) with HOMA index (FPG×FIRI), the latter being recently regarded as an index of hepatic insulin resistance. These data showed that slope “a” obtained from euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp may be a clinically useful index of hepatic insulin resistance rather than an index of peripheral insulin resistance.
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  • NAONORI ISHIHARA, HIROYA MATSUO, HOMARE MURAKOSHI, JOVELLE LAOAG-FERNA ...
    2000 Volume 47 Issue 3 Pages 317-327
    Published: 2000
    Released: November 25, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In order to evaluate placental trophoblast proliferation and apoptosis during pregnancy, we investigated proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression, apoptosis and Bcl-2 protein expression in the human placenta using avidin/biotin immunoperoxidase method to examine PCNA and Bcl-2 protein expression, and TUNEL method to assess apoptosis. The appearance of apoptotic cells in very early term placental trophoblasts was also examined by transmission electron microscopy. PCNA was immunolocalized in the nuclei of cytotrophoblasts (C-cells). Determination of the mean percentage of PCNA-positive nuclei of C-cells revealed that PCNA expression in C-cells was highest in very early term (4th to 5th wk) placentas and significantly decreased with the advance of pregnancy. Bcl-2 protein was immunolocalized in the cytoplasm of syncytiotrophoblast (S-cell), being least abundant in very early term placentas, less abundant in early term and midterm placentas, and most abundant in term placentas. On the basis of TUNEL method, apoptosis was apparent in the nuclei of both C-cells and S-cell. The apoptosis positive rate of C-cell nuclei was highest in very early term 4th to 5th wk placentas, and significantly decreased in early term 7th to 9th wk and midterm placentas, but somewhat increased in term placentas compared to that in midterm placentas. On the other hand, apoptosis positive rate of S-cell nuclei was remarkably higher only in very early term 4th to 5th wk placentas compared to that in early term, midterm and term placentas. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the appearance of apoptotic nucleus in very early term placental trophoblasts. These results demonstrate for the first time that apoptosis in the human normal placenta predominates in both C-cells and S-cell in very early term 4th to 5th wk pregnancy and drastically diminished after 7th wk of pregnancy. An apparent increase in apoptosis in C-cells in term placentas compared to that in midterm placentas may reflect aging of the placenta or parturition-associated biological change. The abundant expression of Bcl-2 protein in S-cell in term placentas may be responsible for the diminished occurrence of apoptosis in S-cell in term placentas.
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  • DAE HO LEE, MIN YOUNG CHUNG, DONG JIN CHUNG, JUNG MIN KIM, TAI HEE LEE ...
    2000 Volume 47 Issue 3 Pages 329-333
    Published: 2000
    Released: November 25, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Pituitary apoplexy has been reported as a very rare complication of combined tests of anterior pituitary function and of TRH or gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) administration in pituitary tumor. A 34-year-old man with a GH-secreting pituitary macroadenoma and diabetes mellitus received an injection of 400μg TRH, 100μg GnRH, and 0.15U/Kg regular insulin. Twenty minutes later, he complained of a severe headache and vomited. Visual acuity and visual field did not change and his headache was persistent during the next 24 hours of conservative management. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the sella turcica done the day after the event showed definitive elevation of the optic chiasm and slight enlargement of tumor and focal areas of mixed high signal and low signal intensities in the macroadenoma on noncontrast T1-weighted images. Headache subsided markedly within a day of octreotide therapy. Transsphenoidal removal of the pituitary tumor was performed 9 days after the hormone study. Ischemic necrosis and hemorrhage were confirmed in the acidophilic adenoma with positive immunostaining for GH. Postoperative course was uneventful and his serum insulin-like growth factor-1(IGF-1) level and blood glucose levels were normalized. Three months after the surgery the dynamic test was repeated without adverse effects. To our knowledge, this is a very rare case of apoplexy of GH-secreting pituitary adenoma after a combined stimulation test of anterior pituitary function.
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  • MASAHIKO KISHIMOTO, YASUHIKO OKIMURA, KEN-ICHI KIMURA, ISHIKAZU MIZUNO ...
    2000 Volume 47 Issue 3 Pages 335-342
    Published: 2000
    Released: November 25, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Multifocal fibrosclerosis denotes a combination of similar fibrous disorders occurring at different anatomical sites. We encountered a 53-year-old male patient with orbital pseudotumor, chronic paranasal sinusitis, fibrous nodules of the lungs, intracranial pachymeningitis, and panhypopituitarism with central diabetes insipidus (DI) as a possible manifestation of multifocal fibrosclerosis. It has been reported that intracranial pachymeningitis or orbital pseudotumor associated with multifocal fibrosclerosis could invade the sella turcica causing a variety of anterior and/or posterior pituitary dysfunctions. In our case, intracranial pachymeningitis apparently involved the pituitary stalk and gland. Isolated gonadotropin deficiency, in addition to central DI, preceded panhypopituitarism. Although panhypopituitarism with central DI due to multifocal fibrosclerosis is quite rare and only one case has ever been reported, this systemic fibrotic disorder can be a possible cause of panhypopituitarism with central DI.
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  • TOSHIHIRO TAKAO, WAKAKO NANAMIYA, HOSSEIN POURNAJAFI NAZARLOO, KOICHI ...
    2000 Volume 47 Issue 3 Pages 343-347
    Published: 2000
    Released: November 25, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Environmental estrogens (endocrine disruptive chemicals) have been shown to affect reproduction in wild life and it has been reported that maternal exposure to those chemicals has adverse effects on the male reproductive tract. However, little is known about the potential effects of prepubertal or pubertal exposure to environmental estrogens on the male reproductive tract. Here we examine plasma hormone levels of mice following 4-week oral administration of styrene. Plasma free testosterone levels were dramatically decreased following 4 weeks of styrene treatment compared with control group. No differences in plasma corticosterone and luteinizing hormone levels were seen between styrene and control groups. Thus, exposure to styrene around pubertal period may directly disrupt the male reproductive tract. These facts suggest that more detailed studies regarding assessment of the risk to the developing human testes from exposure to styrene and other environmental estrogens in prepubertal and pubertal period are warranted.
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  • HAKAN KULAÇOGLU, CENAP DENER, IPEK ZIRAMAN, NURI A. KAMA
    2000 Volume 47 Issue 3 Pages 349-352
    Published: 2000
    Released: November 25, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this study, we investigated the value of thyroxine administration to prevent recurrence after bilateral subtotal thyroidectomy for multinodular goiter. Patients that had benign multinodular goiter were operated on with the same surgical principles: ligation of both superior and inferior thyroid arteries on both sides, bilateral subtotal resection of thyroid gland including all visible nodules. On the 3rd postoperative day, the patients were divided into two groups: with 100 microgram 1-thyroxine daily (Thyroxine group) or no therapy (Control group). No recurrences were encountered among 40 patients followed up for 6 months and 20 patients for at least one year. One patient in the control group developed manifest hypothyroidism (5.3%). The mean TSH level of the control group was significantly higher than that of thyroxine group at 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, and 12th months. At the end of the first year, the mean TSH level of the control group was four times that of the normal. On the other hand, the mean TSH level of the thyroxine group was within normal limits but not suppressed. In conclusion, we found that the pituitary-thyroid axis did not become normal spontaneously one year after thyroidectomy. Therefore, postoperative thyroxine administration seems to be of value, especially in endemic regions like Turkey.
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  • ELIZABETH M. SAJDEL-SULKOWSKA, NORIYUKI KOIBUCHI
    2000 Volume 47 Issue 3 Pages 353-358
    Published: 2000
    Released: November 25, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Thyroid hormone plays an important role during central nervous system (CNS) development. Experimentally-induced perinatal hypothyroid rats show abnormal cerebellar cytoarchitecture, but the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Altered cell-cell interactions may contribute to such abnormalities, since the expression of NCAM is increased in hypothyroid animals. In the present study, we examined the expression of carbohydrate epitope 3-fucosyl-N-acetyl-lactosamine (CD15 antigen), that can be localized on both astrocytes and neurons in the developing brain, and is considered to play an important role in glial-neuronal interaction and cell migration. Newborn rats were treated with an antithyroid drug, propylthiouracil (PTU) and the CD15 glycolipid levels in the cerebellum were examined by enzyme-linked immunosolvent assay (ELISA) using 7A monoclonal antibody raised against rat forebrain antigen. A transient elevation of CD15 level was observed on postnatal day 10 in PTU-treated animals. Analysis of neutral glycolipids on high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), revealed two distinct immunoreative bands, corresponding to Fuc-nLc6 and Fuc-nLc4. The Fuc-nLc4 is preferentially increased in the PTU-treated group. These results suggest that a transient increase in CD15 glycoconjugates with isoform-specific manner induced by PTU may contribute to morphological abnormalities in hypothyroid rat cerebellum affecting granule cell migration.
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  • TOMOATSU NAKAMURA, SHOICHIRO NAGASAKA, SAN-E ISHIKAWA, MUTSUKO NONAKA, ...
    2000 Volume 47 Issue 3 Pages 359-364
    Published: 2000
    Released: November 25, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    To further clarify the relationship between insulin and leptin, time course changes in plasma glucose, serum insulin and leptin levels were analyzed after subcutaneous administration of 100μg octreotide acetate in two insulinoma subjects. Octreotide acetate induced a prompt decrease in serum insulin level, accompanied with an increase in plasma glucose in both patients. Following the decrease in serum insulin level, serum leptin concentrations were profoundly decreased by 66% and 44%, 8-12 hrs after octreotide injection; that is, the concentrations decreased from 41.1 to 13.8ng/ml in patient 1, and from 17.5 to 9.8ng/ml in patient 2. Daily profiles of plasma glucose, serum insulin and leptin without octreotide administration did not show such alterations in these indexes in patient 1. These data show that circulating leptin may be susceptible to decline dependent on the decrease in serum insulin, suggesting that insulin plays a crucial role in the maintenance of leptin secretion in humans.
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  • HIDEYUKI AOSHIMA, TADASHI YOSHIDA, SHINYA KOBAYASHI, YUTAKA MIZUSHIMA, ...
    2000 Volume 47 Issue 3 Pages 365-372
    Published: 2000
    Released: November 25, 2006
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    Mutations of the thyrotropin receptor (TSH-R) gene have been reported in some cases of hyperthyroidism. We report a case of a family that had a high incidence of hyperthyroidism (6/13) which strongly suggested hereditary factors. We then analyzed whether the family had mutations of the TSH-R gene. No significant mutations in exon 10 of the TSH-R gene were found in the patient by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and polymerase chain reaction direct sequencing, when compared with those with 4 normal subjects and 2 patients with Graves' disease. Unknown mutations in the extracellular region of the receptor or other genes in thisfamily remain to be studied.
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