Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common pediatric bone malignancy worldwide. The MDM2 gene is an important candidate gene for influencing the susceptibility to OS. The objective of this study aimed to detect the potential association between MDM2 genetic variants and OS susceptibility in Chinese Han population. We recruited 415 OS patients and 431 cancer-free controls in this case-control study. The c.44C>T and c.1002T>C genetic variants in MDM2 gene were investigated using created restriction site-polymerase chain reaction (CRS-PCR) and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), respectively. We found that the genotypes/alleles of c.44C>T and c.1002T>C were statistically associated with the increased risk of OS (for c.44C>T, TT versus (vs.) CC: OR = 2.43, 95% CI 1.49-3.95, p < 0.001; T vs. C: OR = 1.36, 95% CI 1.11-1.67, p = 0.003; for c.1002T>C, CC vs. TT: OR = 2.38, 95% CI 1.37-4.13, p = 0.002; C vs. T: OR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.02-1.56, p = 0.030). The T allele and TT genotype of c.44C>T and C allele and CC genotype of c.1002T>C could be increased risk factors for the susceptibility to OS. Results from this study suggest that MDM2 genetic variants are potentially related to OS susceptibility in Chinese Han population, and might be used as molecular markers for assessing OS susceptibility.
Systemic infection/inflammation can severely interfere with brain development. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a major cell wall component of gram-negative bacteria and commonly used to model the response by infections. Since perinatal exposure to LPS shows neurodevelopmental defects partly similar to those seen in perinatal hypothyroidism, we examined the effect of LPS on thyroxin (T4)-mediated signalings in astrocytes. Initially, C6 rat glioma-derived clonal cells were used, whose biological nature is similar to that of astrocytes. To measure the effects of LPS and T4, actin polymerization and D2 activity assays were carried out. LPS treatment (10 ng/mL) markedly induced actin depolymerization, whereas 10 nM T4 promoted actin polymerization. Furthermore, T4 partly rescued LPS-induced actin depolymerization. LPS treatment (10 ng/mL) increased D2 activity, whereas T4 (10 nM) suppressed this activity. T4 restored LPS-increased D2 activity at 10 nM. LPS-induced actin depolymerization and D2 activity were blocked by p38 MAP kinase inhibitor. Such effects were not seen in T4-mediated changes. Furthermore, similar results were found in the cerebellar primary astrocyte. These results indicate that, although LPS affects T4-regulated cellular events such as actin polymerization and D2 activity, which may induce neurodevelopmental defects similar to those in perinatal hypothyroidism, LPS signaling pathways are independent of T4 signaling pathways.
The proteins found in cow milk have been reported to cause systemic inflammation. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is known to be involved in the development of several metabolic disorders including insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. However, the effect of thiazolidinediones (TZDs) on ER stress is still controversial. This is why we want to investigate in this study whether casein, which is the major protein in cow’s milk, induces ER stress in the liver and whether rosiglitazone can attenuate these changes. Nine-week-old male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were separated into three groups: (1) vehicle treated; (2) daily subcutaneous injections of 1 mL 10% casein; (3) daily subcutaneous injection of 1mL 10% casein and rosiglitazone 4 mg/[kg d]. After 6 weeks, body weight, food intake, glucose and lipid parameters, and serum AST/ALT levels were measured after an overnight fast. Real time RT-PCR and immunohistochemical staining for various ER stress markers were performed, and a TUNEL analysis was also performed. After 6 weeks, casein injection induced weight reduction, systemic inflammation, and hepatic dysfunction in SD rats. Casein injection increased both the gene and protein expression of ER stress markers in the liver and also caused hepatocyte apoptosis. Rosiglitazone treatment attenuated casein-induced systemic inflammation, ER stress, deteriorated liver function, and increased apoptosis. In conclusion, our results may provide further insight into the effects of casein on chronic inflammatory diseases, and to have a better understanding of the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory properties of rosiglitazone regardless of its hypoglycemic effect.
We investigated the effect of Trichinella infection on glucose tolerance and (pro- or anti-inflammatory) macrophage status in adipose tissue. Ob/ob mice and high fat-fed mice (obesity model) and C57/BL mice (control mice) were orally infected with (infected group) or without (uninfected group) 400 Trichinella per mouse. Four weeks later, the mice were subjected to investigation, which showed that fasting plasma glucose levels decreased in the infected group of C57/BL and ob/ob mice. Glucose tolerance, evaluated with intraperitoneal GTT, improved in the infected group of ob/ob mice and high fat-fed mice compared with the uninfected groups. Additional assay included anti-inflammatory macrophage (M2) markers and pro-inflammatory macrophage (M1) markers, with the aim to explore the effect of Trichinella infection on adipose tissue inflammation, since our previous study identified anti-inflammatory substances in secreted proteins by Trichinella. The result showed that mRNA levels of M2 markers, such as CD206, arginase and IL-10, increased, whereas M1 markers, such as CD11c, iNOS and IL-6, decreased in the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) isolated from epididymal fat in ob/ob mice. Residential macrophages obtained from the peritoneal lavage exhibited lower M1 markers and higher M2 markers levels in the infected group than in the uninfected group. Trichinella infection increases the ratio of M2/M1 systemically, which results in an improvement in pro-inflammatory state in adipose tissue and amelioration of glucose tolerance in obese mice.
There are differences in the susceptibility of rat strains to pituitary growth and lactotroph proliferation caused by long-term treatment with estrogens. To investigate the pituitary mechanism for this strain difference in estrogen-induced lactotroph proliferation, we compared the abilities of 17-β estradiol (E2) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) to modulate lactotroph proliferation and gene expression in vitro in Wistar and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. These two strains of rats have a high and very low susceptibility to estrogen, respectively. Long-term in vivo treatment with E2 was confirmed to markedly increase pituitary weight and lactotroph proliferation in ovariectomized Wistar, but not in WKY rats. Pituitary lactotrophs in primary cultures showed similar proliferative responsiveness to the culture condition-dependent, stimulatory and inhibitory actions of E2 in both strains. The only difference in lactotroph proliferation in vitro was a lower response to IGF-1 in WKY cells compared with Wistar cells. This difference in proliferation was associated with strain differences in IGF-1-induced gene expression in Wistar and WKY cultured cells. Of the genes tested, IGF-1-induced expression of the Wnt4, Stc1, Mybl1, and Myc genes was attenuated or abolished in WKY cells. These results suggest that the proliferative response to estrogen in lactotrophs in primary culture does not reflect the proliferative response to long-term estrogen treatment observed in vivo in Wistar and WKY rats. The strain difference in proliferation and gene expression to IGF-1 may be implicated in the variable degree of susceptibility for lactotroph proliferation observed in different strains of rats following long-term estrogen treatment.
This study was conducted to evaluate gender-related differences in clinical characteristics and vascular complications in patients with aldosterone-producing adenomas (APA). Clinical characteristics, biochemical markers and incidence of vascular complications were compared by gender in 187 consecutive patients with APA confirmed by pathological diagnosis. Patients were separated into two groups based on ages either older or younger than 49 years, the average age of menopause among Chinese women (<49 y and ≥49 y). Males had significantly higher BMI than females in the age group of <49 years (p = 0.017). In the <49 years group, males had significantly higher serum sodium levels (p = 0.003). However, no such gender differences in clinical characteristics were observed in patients ≥49 years. A higher proportion of vascular complications was observed in males as compared to females aged <49 years but the difference was not statistically significant (51.4% vs. 34.8%, p = 0.105). The only gender difference observed in vascular complications between patients aged ≥49 years was that a significantly greater proportion of males had cerebrovascular complication compared to females (p = 0.006). Our data suggest that female sex hormones are implicated in reducing serum sodium concentration and vascular complications in female APA patients.
Sirtuin1 (SIRT1) is activated during calorie restriction and appears to be related to energy balance through glucose or lipid metabolism and insulin signaling. These findings suggest that SIRT1 may play a role in the pathophysiology of visceral obesity. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between SIRT1 gene expression in circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and abdominal visceral adiposity as measured by computed tomography. We recruited 43 men and women without history of diabetes or cardiovascular disease Biomarkers of metabolic disease and body composition by computed tomography were assessed. SIRT1 gene expression was determined using isolated PBMCs. SIRT1 expression levels negatively correlated with body mass index, waist circumference, abdominal visceral fat area, and homeostasis model of assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and positively correlated with adiponectin levels. Results of step-wise multiple regression analysis revealed that abdominal visceral fat area and HOMA-IR were independently associated with SIRT1 expression. The significant association between abdominal visceral fat accumulation and SIRT1 gene expression in PBMCs suggests that SIRT1 may be a new therapeutic target for the prevention of disease related to obesity, especially visceral obesity.