Hormonal alterations with aging contribute to the pathogenesis of several diseases. Androgens mediate their effects predominantly through binding to the androgen receptor (AR), a member of the ligand-dependent nuclear receptor superfamily. By androgen treatment, AR is recruited to specific genomic loci dependent on tissue specific pioneer factors to regulate target gene expression. Recent studies have revealed the epigenetic modulation by AR-associated histone modifiers and the roles of non-coding RNAs in AR signaling. Androgens are male sex hormone to induce differentiation of the male reproductive system required for the establishment of adult sexual function. As shown by several reports using AR knockout mouse models, androgens also have anabolic functions in several tissues such as bone, muscle and central nervous systems. Notably, AR has a central role in prostate cancer progression. Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in men. Androgen-deprivation therapy for cancer patients and decline of serum androgen with aging promote several diseases associated with aging and quality of life of older men such as osteoporosis, sarcopenia and dementia. Thus, androgen replacement therapy for treating late onset hypogonadism (LOH) or new epigenetic regulators have the potential to overcome the symptoms caused by the low androgen, although adverse effects for cardiovascular diseases have been reported. Given the increasing longevity and consequent rise of age-related diseases and prostate cancer patients, a more understanding of the AR actions in male health remains a high research priority.
Although mutations in ACAN, FGFR3, NPR2, and SHOX typically lead to skeletal dysplasia, and mutations in GHRHR, GH1, GHR, STAT5B, IGF1, IGFALS, and IGF1R usually underlie hormonal defects of the growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) axis, such mutations have also been identified in patients with idiopathic short stature (ISS). Of these, SHOX abnormalities are known to account for a certain percentage of ISS cases, whereas the frequency of mutations in the other 10 genes in ISS cohorts remains unknown. Here, we performed next-generation sequencing-based mutation screening of the 10 genes in 86 unrelated Japanese ISS patients without SHOX abnormalities. We searched for rare protein-altering variants. The functional significance of the identified variants was assessed by in silico analyses. Consequently, we identified 18 heterozygous rare variants in 19 patients, including four probable damaging variants in ACAN, six pathogenicity-unknown variants in FGFR3, GHRHR, GHR, and IGFALS, and eight possible benign variants. Pathogenic variants in NPR2, GH1, and IGF1 were absent from our cohort. Unlike previously reported patients with ACAN mutations, our four patients with ACAN variants manifested non-specific short stature with age-appropriate or mildly delayed bone ages, and had parents of normal stature. These results indicate that ACAN mutations can underlie ISS without characteristic skeletal features, and that such mutations are possibly associated with de novo occurrence or low penetrance. In addition, our data imply that mutations in FGFR3, NPR2, and GH-IGF1 axis genes play only limited roles in the etiology of ISS.
It is generally believed that the detection of thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb) is superior to that of thyroglobulin antibodies (TgAb) for the diagnosis of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. However, limited data are available on the comparison of TgAb and TPOAb prevalence as a diagnostic measurement for Hashimoto’s thyroiditis using sensitive immunoassays. We herein used five different current immunoassay kits (A-E) to compare the prevalence of TgAb and TPOAb in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (n = 70), Graves’ disease (n = 70), painless thyroiditis (n = 50), and healthy control subjects (n = 100). In patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, positive TgAb was significantly more frequent than positive TPOAb in kits A-D (mean ± SD of the four kits: 98.6 ± 1.7 vs 81.4 ± 2.0%). In patients with Graves’ disease, TgAb prevalence was almost equivalent to that of TPOAb in five kits. Patients with painless thyroiditis exhibited positive TgAb significantly more frequently than positive TPOAb in kits A-D (73.5 ± 4.1 vs 33.0 ± 3.4%). The prevalence of TgAb alone was significantly higher than that of TPOAb alone in both Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and painless thyroiditis in kits A-D. In kit E, TgAb and TPOAb prevalence did not differ significantly for any disease, and TgAb distribution was different from other kits. In conclusion, the prevalence of TgAb was higher than that of TPOAb in patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and painless thyroiditis using commercially available kits. We suggest that TgAb immunoassay is the first choice of screening test for thyroid autoimmune abnormalities in Japan.
Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP)-5 is a secreted protein that binds to IGFs and modulates IGF actions, as well as regulates cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis independent of IGF. Proper cellular localization is critical for the effective function of most signaling molecules. In previous studies, we have shown that the nuclear IGFBP-5 comes from ER-cytosol retro-translocation. In this study, we further investigated the pathway mediating IGFBP-5 nuclear import after it retro-translocation. Importin-α5 was identified as an IGFBP-5-interacting protein with a yeast two-hybrid system, and its interaction with IGFBP-5 was further confirmed by GST pull down and co-immunoprecipitation. Binding affinity of IGFBP-5 and importins were determined by surface plasmon resonance (IGFBP-5/importin-β: KD=2.44e-7, IGFBP-5/importin-α5: KD=3.4e-7). Blocking the importin-α5/importin-β nuclear import pathway using SiRNA or dominant negative impotin-β dramatically inhibited IGFBP-5-EGFP nuclear import, though importin-α5 overexpress does not affect IGFBP-5 nuclear import. Furthermore, nuclear IGFBP-5 was quantified using luciferase report assay. When deleted the IGFBP-5 nuclear localization sequence (NLS), IGFBP-5ΔNLS loss the ability to translocate into the nucleus and accumulation of IGFBP-5ΔNLS was visualized in the cytosol. Altogether, our findings provide a substantially evidence showed that the IGFBP-5 nuclear import is mediated by importin-α/importin-β complex, and NLS is critical domain in IGFBP-5 nuclear translocation.
This study set out to compare structural and invasive characteristics of sporadic papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in age-matched groups of children and adolescents of Japan and Ukraine to provide detailed histopathological analysis of tumors from different geographical areas with different iodine intake. A total of 348 (160 Japanese and 188 Ukrainian) PTCs from patients without radiation history were analyzed initially as a combined pediatric group and then subdivided into childhood (aged ≤14 years) and adolescent (aged from 15 to ≤18 years) age series. On multivariate comparison, the Japanese pediatric PTC was characterized by a higher sex ratio (p=1.504E-4), and a higher frequency of microcarcinoma (p=0.039), papillary dominant growth pattern (p=0.024), focal oxyphilic cell metaplasia (p=7.644E-6), intrathyroid spread (p=0.010), lymphatic/vascular invasion (p=0.01) and regional lymph node metastases (p=3.540E-6). In the Ukrainian group, multifocal (p=0.004) and non-encapsulated tumors with the solid-trabecular growth pattern (p=0.05) were more frequent. Childhood Japanese PTCs differed from Ukrainian PTCs by more pronounced invasive properties such as lymphatic/vascular invasion and nodal disease, but did not differ by the dominant growth pattern. In adolescents, the differences were detected not only for lymph node metastases, but also for a higher frequency of the papillary dominant pattern in Japanese PTC. Overall, significantly higher frequencies of oxyphilic cell metaplasia and more pronounced invasive features observed in the Japanese PTC in both age-matched series represent the major differences between the tumors from two geographical areas.
To investigate whether sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i), tofogliflozin or ipragliflozin, achieve optimal glycemic variability, when used together with insulin glargine 300 U/mL (Glargine 300). Thirty patients with type 2 diabetes were randomly allocated to 2 groups. For the first group: After admission, tofogliflozin 20 mg was administered; Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels were titrated using an algorithm and stabilized at 80 mg/dL level with Glargine 300 for 5 days; Next, glucose levels were continuously monitored for 2 days using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM); Tofogliflozin was then washed out over 5 days; Subsequently, ipragliflozin 50 mg was administered; FPG levels were titrated using the same algorithm and stabilized at 80 mg/dL level with Glargine 300 for 5 days; Next, glucose levels were continuously monitored for 2 days using CGM. For the second group, ipragliflozin was administered prior to tofogliflozin, and the same regimen was maintained. Glargine 300 and SGLT2i were administered at 8:00 AM. Data collected on the second day of measurement (mean amplitude of glycemic excursion [MAGE], average daily risk range [ADRR]; on all days of measurement) were analyzed. Area over the glucose curve (<70 mg/dL; 0:00 to 6:00, 24-h), M value, standard deviation, MAGE, ADRR, and mean glucose levels (24-h, 8:00 to 24:00) were significantly lower in patients on tofogliflozin than in those on ipragliflozin. Tofogliflozin, which reduces glycemic variability by preventing nocturnal hypoglycemia and decreasing postprandial glucose levels, is an ideal SGLT2i when used together with Glargine 300 during basal insulin therapy.
The aim of this study was to explore a new classification way in persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus based on complications and comorbidities using Latent Class Analysis, moreover, finding out the factors associated with different latent classes and making specific suggestions. In this study, 5,500 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus from ten hospitals in Tianjin, China were selected, and the response rate was 96.2%. Latent Class Analysis was used to cluster patients. After compared the baseline characteristics, multinomial logistic regression was applied. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were classified into four classes. In the univariate analysis, all variables were significant (p<0.05). According to multinomial logistic regression, we found longer duration of type 2 diabetes mellitus, family history of diabetes, older age, obesity and central obesity, female menopause, living in a suburb, having a higher 2hPG at diagnosis, smoking and drinking were associated with the prevalence of complications and comorbidities. In conclusion, LCA was shown to be an effective method for grouping patients with T2DM, which presented a nuanced approach to data reduction. Further research using LCA may be especially useful to investigate causal relationships between complications and the significant factors identified in our study.
Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) with desmoid-type fibromatosis (DTF) is characterized by genetic alterations of the fibroblasts. PTC-DTF is extremely rare, and the reports on such cases have been sporadic. Immunohistochemical staining using the antibody for beta-catenin is useful in diagnosing the variant. This report aims to describe the clinical, pathological, and immunohistochemical findings in 14 cases of PTC-DTF and to clarify the diagnostic significance of the variant. The patients included 9 women and 5 men, with a mean age of 49.3 years. PTCs with focal DTF components and with extensive DTF components included 7 cases each. No significant differences were noted in terms of age, gender, and serum thyroglobulin levels between extensive and focal DTF cases. On aspiration cytology, 12 cases were reported as suspicious for malignancy or malignant, and schwannoma or fibroma was suggested in 1 case each. The DTF components were histologically classified into 4 types, namely, central (4 cases), peripheral (1 case), mixed (7 cases), and diffuse type (2 cases). The stromal components were consistent with those of DTF. Immunohistochemically, fibroblasts in the DTF components showed nuclear and cytoplasmic expression for beta-catenin in 12 cases. The features are observed even in cases in which stromal components focally exist. Neither carcinoma cells nor the fibroblasts with Ki-67 labeling index >5% were found in all cases. We agree that PTC with nodular fasciitis-like stroma should be renamed to PTC-DTF.
Graves’ disease (GD) and Hashimoto’s disease (HD) are well known autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs), and the severity and intractability of AITDs varies among patients. Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) is a thyroid-specific antigen. The levels of anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) were higher in patients with HD and may be associated with thyroid destruction. In this study, we genotyped eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TPO gene to clarify the association of TPO gene polymorphisms with the development, severity and intractability of AITD. We genotyped TPO rs2071399G/A, rs2071400C/T, rs2071402A/G, rs2071403A/G, rs1126799C/T, rs1126797T/C, rs732609A/C, and rs2048722A/G polymorphisms in 145 patients with GD, 147 patients with HD and 92 healthy controls by PCR-RFLP method. TPO rs2071400 T carriers (CT + TT genotypes) were more frequent in AITD, GD, and HD patients (p=0.0079, 0.0041, and 0.0488, respectively). The TPO rs2071403 GG genotype was more frequent in AITD, GD, and HD patients (p=0.0227, 0.0465, and 0.0305, respectively). There was no significant association between the SNPs and the prognosis of AITD. Serum levels of TPOAb were significantly higher in AITD patients with TPO rs2071400 T carriers (CT + TT genotypes) than in those with the CC genotype (p=0.0295), and were also significantly higher in AITD patients with TPO rs2048722 T carriers (CT + TT genotypes) than in those with the CC genotype (p=0.0056). In conclusion, TPO rs2071400 and rs2071403 polymorphisms were associated with the development of HD and GD, but not with the prognosis. Moreover, TPO rs2071400 and rs2048722 polymorphisms were associated with the serum levels of TPOAb.
Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome often associated with fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23)-producing tumors such as phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor, mixed connective tissue variant (PMTMCT) affecting the bone and soft tissue. We experienced a patient with progressive bone and muscle pain due to FGF23-related TIO. Venous sampling had strongly suggested the anterior skull base as a source of FGF23, which led to the discovery of a small tumor in the ethmoid sinus extending intracranially. Radical surgical resection confirmed the histological diagnosis of PMTMCT with FGF23 immunopositivity and achieved durable tumor control with complete resolution of symptoms. We serially measured serum FGF23 level before, during and after surgery and analyzed the data to determine the half-life of FGF23. Serum FGF23 level sharply declined as early as 20 minutes after en bloc tumor resection and completely normalized after surgery. The half-life of FGF23 was calculated to be approximately 18.5 minutes using single phase exponential decay model as well as semilog transformation formula. Serial measurements of serum FGF23 level can potentially declare “complete” resection of a FGF23-producing tumor and total cure of TIO; in this regard, development of its intraoperative measurement would be helpful in the management of this endocrine tumor.