The reported prevalence of complications in Turner Syndrome (TS) was highly variable because of the rarity and the limited numbers analyzed. Again, possible presence of other complications that are not described as specific for TS, is also speculated. To resolve these issues, a questionnaire survey was conducted in hGH treated 492 patients with adult TS (17–42 years). The possible association with these complications and karyotypes were also analyzed. The complications and their prevalence were as follows: chronic thyroiditis (25.2%), inflammatory bowel disease (1.8%), congenital cardiovascular anomaly (11.8%), urinary tract malformation (11.8%), low bone mineral density (BMD) (42.9%), scoliosis (8.4%), hearing loss (6.2%), epilepsy (2.8%) and schizophrenia (0.9%). The majority of prevalence of these diseases in TS was higher than in the general population. In distribution, the most frequent karyotype was 45,X monosomy (28.9%), followed by 45,X/46,X,Xi (16.9%), 46,X,Xi (9.1%), and 45,X/46,XX (6.3%), while other mosaic 45,X was noted in 29.9%. Regarding the karyotype, cardiovascular anomaly was more frequent in the 45,X group and less in the 46,X,Xi group. Urinary tract malformation and epilepsy were frequently associated with the chromosome 45,X. The prevalence of low BMD was noticed more in the chromosome 46,X,Xi and 45,X/46,X,Xi, and less in other mosaic 45,X. In conclusion, the more exact prevalence of diverse complications was clarified and it exceeded the prevalence of the majority of complications in general population. As novel findings, it was observed that the prevalence of epilepsy was significantly high, and epilepsy and low BMD were frequently associated with the specific karyotypes.
Diabetic patients often suffer from muscle cramps. This study aimed to compare the quality of life (QOL) of diabetic patients with and without muscle cramps and to investigate the effect of L-carnitine supplementation in diabetic patients with muscle cramps. A total of 91 patients with diabetes were enrolled in this study: 69 patients with muscle cramps and 22 patients without muscle cramps. Muscle cramps and QOL were evaluated using the muscle cramp questionnaire and the Short Form 36 health survey version 2 (SF-36), respectively. Clinical characteristics were compared between diabetic patients with and without muscle cramps. In the prospective portion of the study, 25 diabetic patients with muscle cramps received L-carnitine supplementation (600 mg/day orally) for 4 months. The questionnaires were administered before and after supplementation. The SF-36 scores in diabetic patients with muscle cramps were lower than those in patients without muscle cramps on the subscales of physical function, role physical, bodily pain, vitality, general health, and social function. In the 25 patients with muscle cramps who received L-carnitine supplementation, the monthly frequency of muscle cramps and Wong-Baker FACES® Pain Rating Scale scores were significantly decreased. Scores on the following SF-36 subscales improved after L-carnitine supplementation: body pain, vitality, social function, and role emotional. This study demonstrated that muscle cramps decrease the QOL in patients with diabetes, and L-carnitine supplementation may improve the QOL by reducing the frequency and severity of muscle cramps in these patients.
The prevalence of obesity is increasing globally in patients with diabetes. This study aimed to examine 12-year trends of increasing obesity in Japanese patients with diabetes, and their clinical features. The study used results of the Shiga Diabetes Clinical Survey, which recorded medical performance in diabetic patients in 2000, 2006 and 2012. Data were analyzed from 14,205, 14,407 and 21,449 adult patients in these three years, respectively. Overweight and obesity prevalence and the clinical features of diabetes patients were examined, stratified by body mass index (BMI) and age. The prevalence of overweight (BMI 25–30 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) were 27.0% and 5.1% in 2000, 28.9% and 7.3% in 2006 and 30.9% and 10.0% in 2012. Glycemic control, blood pressure and serum lipid profile improved over 12 years in all BMI categories. However, glycemic and triglyceride control were insufficient in obese patients aged <65 years (hemoglobin A1c 7.5 ± 1.4%, triglyceride 197.7 ± 178.4 mg/dL in 2012). The percentage of patients who used antihypertensive and lipid-lowering drugs increased and patients with higher BMI had increased frequency of using these drugs, both in young and old age groups. Higher BMI was significantly and positively associated with albuminuria. In summary, overweight and obesity have increased in Japanese diabetic patients, particularly for younger generations. Findings suggest that obesity may lead to poorer glycemic control, blood pressure and lipid profiles. Overweight and obesity are important modifiable risk factors for diabetes, suggesting that more active weight-control interventions are warranted.
Copy number variation (CNV) has emerged as another important genetic marker in addition to SNP for understanding etiology of complex disease. Kv channel interacting protein 1 (KCNIP1) is a Ca2+-dependent transcriptional modulator that contributes to the regulation of insulin secretion. Previous genome-wide CNV assay identified the KCNIP1 gene encompassing a CNV region, however, its further effect and risk rate on type 2 diabetes (T2D) have rarely been addressed, especially in Chinese population. The current study aims to detect and excavate genetic distribution profile of KCNIP1 CNV in Chinese T2D and control populations, and further to investigate the associations with clinical characteristics. Divergent patterns of the KCNIP1 CNV were identified (p < 0.01), in which the copy number gain was predominant in T2D, while the copy number normal accounted for the most in control group. Consistently, the individuals with copy number gain showed significant risk on T2D (OR = 4.550, p < 0.01). The KCNIP1 copy numbers presented significantly positive correlations with fasting plasma glucose and glycated hemoglobin in T2D. For OGTT test, the T2D patients with copy number gain had remarkably elevated glucose contents (60, 120, 180-min, p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) and diminished insulin levels (60, 120-min, p < 0.05) than those with copy number loss and normal, which suggested that the KCNIP1 CNV was correlated with the glucose and insulin action. This is the first CNV association study of the KCNIP1 gene in Chinese population, and these data indicated that KCNIP1 might function as a T2D-susceptibility gene whose dysregulation alters insulin production.
Patients with adrenal insufficiency require appropriate glucocorticoid replacement therapy; however, reliable biological parameters for optimizing glucocorticoid supplementation are limited. The physician has to rely primarily on clinical judgment, carefully taking into account signs and symptoms potentially suggestive of over- or under-replacement. We have found that some patients who are viewed as receiving sufficient doses of glucocorticoids occasionally exhibit morning headache or morning discomfort, which may be caused by unrecognized nocturnal hypoglycemia. Our aim in this study was to evaluate the usefulness of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) for detecting unrecognized hypoglycemia and optimizing glucocorticoid replacement therapy in adult patients with central hypoadrenalism. Six patients with central hypoadrenalism of various etiologies were included in this study. All patients exhibited occasional morning headache or discomfort. We performed CGM to measure plasma glucose levels in all patients, and CGM identified unrecognized hypoglycemia episodes at midnight and early in the morning in five patients (83%). The CGM findings were used to fine-tune the dosing and regimens of glucocorticoid replacement and to re-evaluate glucose levels to avoid further unrecognized hypoglycemic events. This optimization of hydrocortisone supplementation prevented additional nocturnal hypoglycemia incidences in all cases. The addition of L-thyroxine with hydrocortisone continued to provide favorable glycemic control. Occasional symptoms also improved after maintenance in all patients. These findings demonstrated that CGM may represent a powerful tool for identifying unrecognized hypoglycemia and for optimizing supplementary hormones in patients with central hypoadrenalism, thereby improving their quality of life.
We aimed to determine the optimal gestational weight gain (GWG) in Japanese women with a Body Mass Index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2. The present retrospective study investigated singleton pregnancies in 6,781 Japanese women registered in the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology system in 2013. We divided overweight and obese women into four GWG categories based on the Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommended: weight loss, small weight gain, within IOM criteria, and above IOM criteria. The adjusted odds ratios and predicted probabilities of maternal and neonatal outcomes of interest with weight change were calculated. In overweight women, GWG was associated with neonatal birth weight. In the loss and small gain subgroups, there was a significant increase in small for gestational age (SGA) and low birth weight neonates (LBW). Predicted probabilities showed the lowest risk was observed in a weight gain of 0 kg; the risk sharply increased at a gain of 11.5 kg. In obese women, weight gain increased the prevalence of large for gestational age (LGA) neonates; however; SGA was not associated with GWG. Predicted probabilities showed an increase in the risk with weight gain. The observed optimal GWG was 0 to 11.5 kg in overweight, and weight loss in obese, pregnant Japanese women.
Oxidative stress caused free radical and mitochondrial damage plays a critical role in the progression of aging and age-related damage at the cellular and tissue levels. Antioxidant supplementation has received growing attention and the effects of antioxidant on aging are increasingly assessed in both animal and human studies. However, additional and more promising treatments that contribute to the expansion of anti-aging therapies are needed. Astaxanthin, a super antioxidant carotenoid and free radical scavenger, inhibits lipid peroxidation more potently than vitamin E. In the present study, we investigated the preventative effects of astaxanthin on aging using an accelerated aging model: mice chronically treated with a combination of D-galactose and jet lag. After 6 weeks of treatment, astaxanthin administration tended to protect the liver weight loss in aged mice. It is probably by upregulating the mRNA expression of galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase, which contribute to the enhancement of D-galactose metabolism. Astaxanthin supplementation also improved muscle endurance of aged mice in a swimming test. These results were associated with reduced oxidative stress in serum and increased anti-oxidative enzymes activities and mRNA expression in vivo. Moreover, astaxanthin reversed the dysregulation of aging-related gene expression caused by the combination of D-galactose and jet lag in the liver and kidney of mice. In conclusion, astaxanthin prevents liver weight loss, ameliorates locomotive muscular function, exerts significant anti-aging effects by reducing oxidative stress and improving the expression of age-related genes in D-galactose and jet lag-induced aging model.
The pathogenesis of thyroid lymphoepithelial cysts is controversial, and two hypotheses have been proposed, namely derivation from branchial-derived remnants or from squamous metaplasia of the follicular cells. The aim of this study was to clarify the pathogenesis of thyroid lymphoepithelial cysts. We performed pathological and immunohistochemical examination of 21 thyroid lymphoepithelial cysts, 13 non-neoplastic squamous metaplasia samples without thyroid carcinoma, 13 solid cell nests, and 14 lateral cervical cysts. On ultrasound, half of thyroid lymphoepithelial cysts were interpreted as calcified nodules regardless of no calcification. Thyroid lymphoepithelial cysts and squamous metaplasia tended to be located in the central and lower portions of the thyroid, while solid cell nests were located in the upper and central portions (p < 0.05). In 95.2% of patients with thyroid lymphoepithelial cysts and all patients with squamous metaplasia, lesions were histologically associated with chronic thyroiditis forming lymph follicles. Hashimoto’s disease was serologically confirmed in 18 patients with lymphoepithelial cysts (85.7%) and 10 patients with squamous metaplasia (76.9%). Immunohistochemically, lymphoepithelial cysts showed nuclear positivity for PAX8, thyroid transcription factor 1, and p63. One lateral cervical cyst (7.1%) showed positive staining for PAX8, while solid cell nests were PAX8-negative. In three (14.3%) cases of thyroid lymphoepithelial cysts, squamous cells located on the superficial layer were focally and weakly positive for CEA. We concluded that thyroid lymphoepithelial cysts originate from follicular cells and are unrelated to solid cell nests and lateral cervical cysts arising from branchial-derived remnants.
Maternal Graves’ disease (GD) during pregnancy may influence thyroid function in fetuses. Neonates born to mothers with high serum TSH receptor antibody (TRAb) levels have been reported to develop ‘neonatal GD’. Therefore, evaluations of serum thyroid hormone and TRAb levels in neonates upon birth are crucial for a prompt diagnosis. At delivery, we measured TRAb with third-generation TRAb test using an M22 human monoclonal antibody in neonates by collecting umbilical cord blood in a blood collection tube with lithium-heparin, which provides a whole blood/plasma sample. In recent years, we have encountered positive TRAb levels (more than 2.0 IU/L) in nineteen neonates born to mothers with GD whose thyroid hormone levels were almost within the reference range and serum TRAb levels were less than 10 IU/L. All the neonates with positive TRAb levels did not exhibit thyrotoxicosis. However, when we measured TRAb levels with serum sample in six out of the nineteen cases, their serum TRAb levels were all negative, suggesting a discrepancy of TRAb levels between in lithium-heparin plasma from umbilical cord blood and serum. Moreover, this discrepancy was observed in neonates born to euthyroid mothers, adult active GD patients and healthy volunteers. Since lithium-heparin plasma from umbilical cord blood is widely used in laboratory tests at delivery, we may encounter ‘false-positive’ TRAb, which may, in turn, lead to a misdiagnosis of neonatal GD. This is a pitfall of third-generation TRAb measurements in neonates, particularly at delivery, and needs to be considered by obstetricians and neonatologists.