Genome editing technologies represent a major breakthrough that has dramatically altered strategies in a wide range of biological studies. Genome editing simplifies and accelerates the creation of animal disease models and enables construction of models in most animal species, even those that are not amenable to conventional gene targeting technology.
Primary hyperparathyroidism is well known to be associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, it is unclear whether normocalcemic primary hyperparathyroidism (NC-PHPT) and hypercalcemic primary hyperparathyroidism (HC-PHPT) share the same risk factors. We aimed to determine prevalence of metabolic syndrome in NC-PHPT and compare metabolic syndrome parameters and insulin resistance in NC-PHPT subjects with those in HC-PHPT and control subjects. After excluding patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism, the study enrolled 25 patients with NC-PHPT, 24 patients with HC-PHPT and 30 age-gender matched controls. All participants were evaluated using the International Diabetes Federation (IDF)-2006 metabolic syndrome criteria. Compared with HC-PHPT patients, NC-PHPT patients had similar prevalence of metabolic syndrome, glucose intolerance, and previous history of hypertension/anti-hypertensive medications, but compared with controls, NC-PHPT patients had significantly higher prevalence of glucose intolerance and previous history of hypertension/anti-hypertensive medications. Not serum calcium but PTH concentration was found to be significantly higher in those with glucose intolerance. Serum fasting triglyceride concentration and waist circumference were found to be positively correlated only with serum PTH concentration. In conclusion, patients with NC-PHPT may be prone to similar metabolic disturbances linked to higher cardiovascular risk like patients with HC-PHPT. Although NC-PHPT is thought to occur early in the development of the classical disease, it should be monitored regularly because of its metabolic consequences.
Progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in diabetic patients can occur through enhanced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. The purpose of our study was to determine whether HPA axis activity influences the prevalence of CKD in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Seventy-seven diabetic patients (mean age, 60 years) were enrolled. CKD was defined by K/DOQI criteria, and serum cortisol level was measured after the 1 mg overnight dexamethasone suppression test (F-DST). F-DST values were significantly negatively correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and significantly positively correlated with cystatin C level and spot urine albumin to creatinine ratio in simple and multiple regression analyses. The subjects were divided into 3 groups (low, middle, and high) according to the F-DST, and the odds for CKD were 8.7-fold (95% confidence interval 2.56 to 29.6, P=0.01) and 12.5-fold (95% confidence interval 3.3 to 47.9, P<0.001) higher in subjects in the middle and high groups than those in the low group, respectively. In multivariate regression analysis, subjects in the middle group and high group (compared to those in the low group) had 13.0-fold (95% confidence interval, 2.9 to 58.8 and P=0.001) and 14.7-fold (95% confidence interval, 2.8 to 78.5 and P=0.002), respectively, higher risk for CKD. In conclusion, F-DST values have a relationship with decreased eGFR and increased cystatin C or albumin excretion involved in CKD, and enhanced HPA axis activity may be an independent risk factor for CKD in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
A 43-yr-old hypertensive male was admitted due to hypokalemia (1.8 mEq/L) and renal dysfunction (eGFR, 20.0 mL/min/1.73 m2). His plasma aldosterone was 901.0 ng/dL, plasma renin activity 5.7 ng/mL/hr, and aldosterone/renin activity ratio 158. Angiotensin II (AII) was 0.7 pg/mL, ACTH <1.0 pg/mL, and cortisol 21.6 μg/dL. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis showed that aldosterone (104 times the control) as well as its precursors were significantly elevated in the patient’s plasma. A left adrenal (4-cm-diameter) tumor with 131I-Adosterol® uptake was found and removed. Four days later, plasma aldosterone and renin activity had dropped to 7.73 ng/dL and 1.6 ng/mL/hr, respectively. However, they rose to 24.0 ng/dL and 10.9 ng/mL/hr, respectively, by Day 102. Nevertheless, magnetic resonance angiography found no evidence of a renovascular lesion. The tumor was a benign adrenocortical adenoma composed predominantly of clear cells positive for 17α-hydroxylase, [hydroxy-delta-5-steroid dehydrogenase, 3 beta- and steroid delta-isomerases], and aldosterone synthase. A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of the tumor cells revealed that expression of the gene encoding aldosterone synthase was 85 times the control level. In addition, the tumor cells harbored G151R mutation of the inward rectifying potassium channel subfamily j, member 5 gene. The striking overexpression of aldosterone synthase by the tumor cells was considered the primary mechanism for the extravagant overproduction of aldosterone in this case. This overexpression may have resulted from integration of signals from AII and forced membrane depolarization due to the potassium channel mutation.
We investigated the relationship between the results of the octreotide test and somatostatin receptor (SSTR) 2 expression in insulinoma patients, to evaluate the usefulness of this test for predicting SSTR2 expression in insulinomas in Japanese patients. Five females and one male were included in the study. All patients underwent the octreotide test before the surgery carried out to resect the tumor, and histopathological examination of the resected tumor was performed by a single experienced pathologist. SSTR2 expression was evaluated by the SSTR2 immunohistochemistry scoring system. Insulinoma was clinically diagnosed and surgically resected in all six patients. In the octreotide test, suppression of insulin secretion was sufficient after loading in patients 1-4 and 6. In patient 5, however, the suppression of insulin secretion was insufficient, which resulted in severe hypoglycemia with endogenous relative hyperinsulinemia after the octreotide loading. The histopathological findings revealed SSTR2 expression in the insulinomas of patients 1-4 and 6, but not in the insulinoma of patient 5. In conclusion, improvement of hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia by octreotide in Japanese insulinoma patients was associated with SSTR2 expression in the tumor. Our results suggest that the octreotide test could be useful for predicting SSTR2 expression in the tumor.
Thyroid uptake of 99mTc-pertechnetate is a useful way to determine the cause of thyrotoxicosis. In daily clinical practice, 99mTc-pertechnetate uptake is used to discriminate between Graves’ disease and painless thyroiditis when clinical information is not enough to make the distinction. However, since the optimal cutoff value of 99mTc-pertechnetate uptake has not yet been elucidated, our aim was to determine this value. We recruited patients with thyrotoxicosis in whom 99mTc-pertechnetate uptake was measured in clinical settings between 2009 and 2013. Three experienced endocrinologists (who were blinded to the value of 99mTc-pertechnetate uptake and initial treatment) diagnosed the cause of thyrotoxicosis based on thyrotropin, free triiodothyronine, free thyroxine, and thyrotropin receptor antibody levels, and by ultrasound findings and using images of thyroid uptake of 99mTc-pertechnetate without the actual values. Ninety-four patients diagnosed as having Graves’ disease or painless thyroiditis were finally included. According to the diagnosis, the optimal cutoff value of 99mTc-pertechnetate uptake was determined by receiver operating characteristics analysis. A cutoff value of 1.0% provided optimal sensitivity and specificity of 96.6% and 97.1%, respectively. Then, its validity was confirmed in 78 patients with confirmed Graves’ disease or painless thyroiditis diagnosed at another institute. Applying this cutoff value to the patients with thyrotoxicosis revealed positive and negative predictive values for Graves’ disease of 100% and 88.9%, respectively. In conclusion, a cutoff value for 99mTc-pertechnetate uptake of 1.0% was useful to discriminate between Graves’ disease and painless thyroiditis.
TSH receptor antibody (TRAb) titer has been reported to be correlated with Graves’ ophthalmopathy (GO). However, the correlation between GO activity and TRAb titer assessed with a third-generation assay has not been reported. We enrolled 238 untreated Graves’ disease patients who came to the outpatient clinic of Ito Hospital and 28 patients who were euthyroid. All of the patients were assessed for GO by an ophthalmologist within 3 months of their initial visit to Ito Hospital. Clinical activity score (CAS), short inversion time inversion recovery (STIR), and sum of the maximum external orbital muscle areas (SEOMA) on a frontal sectional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The TRAb titer was significantly higher in patients with inactive ophthalmopathy (the inactive-GO group) than in patients with active ophthalmopathy (the active-GO group) (17.7 ± 13.5 IU/L vs 13.0 ± 13.1 IU/L, p=0.0082). The SEOMA values were not correlated with TRAb titer. The prevalence of active-GO was higher in euthyroid patients than in hyperthyroid patients although the difference was not significant. In conclusion, TRAb titer measured with a third-generation assay dose not correlate with GO activity based on MRI findings in untreated Graves’ disease patients, and the prevalence of active-GO is higher in euthyroid patients with lower TRAb titers than in hyperthyroid patients.
We evaluated the efficacy and safety of switching to insulin degludec (IDeg) from insulin glargine (IGlar) as basal-bolus therapy in young people with type 1 diabetes. The subjects were 36 patients, 21.3±1.0 years of age, with type 1 diabetes. IGlar had previously been injected once daily in 25 patients and twice daily in 11. They were then switched from IGlar to once-daily injection of IDeg. Both fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and HbA1c levels decreased significantly from 134±3.9 mg/dL and 7.9±0.2% at baseline to 116±2.2 mg/dL and 7.4±0.2% at 12 months after starting IDeg (P<0.0001 and P≤0.001, respectively). Overall and nocturnal hypoglycemia (PG<70 mg/dL) frequencies also decreased significantly from 4.9±0.7 and 2.0±0.3 times/month to 2.4±0.3 and 0.4±0.1 times/month at 12 months after starting IDeg (P≤0.005 and P<0.0005, respectively). The daily basal insulin dose was significantly reduced from 0.48±0.04 units/kg/day at baseline to 0.38±0.03 units/kg/day at the end of the study period (P<0.0001), which corresponded to 79.2% of the baseline value. Trends were similar in patients receiving the once-daily injection and those given twice-daily injections, but basal-insulin value reductions from baseline were more marked in patients receiving twice-daily injections of basal insulin (76.0% vs. 82.6% of the baseline value). These results suggest that switching from IGlar to an appropriate dose of IDeg may effectively control hyperglycemia while reducing the frequency of hypoglycemia episodes in young Japanese people with type 1 diabetes.
Studies on resveratrol in a wide range of concentrations on obese mice and adipose cells are necessary to comprehend its range of diverse and contradictory effects. In this study, we examined the anti-obesity effects of resveratrol on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice at dosages ranging from 1 to 30 mg/kg treatment for 10 wk. We also evaluated the effects of resveratrol on cytotoxicity, proliferation, adipogenic differentiation, and lipolysis of 3T3-L1 cells at concentrations ranging from 0.03 to 100 μM. In HFD obese mice, resveratrol treatment for 10 wk without decreased calories intake significantly attenuated HFD-induced weight gain in a dose-dependent manner. Resveratrol treatment also protected against HFD-induced lipid deposition in adipose tissues and liver. In cultured 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, high dosage (10 to 100 μM) resveratrol treatment produced cytotoxicity in both preadipocytes and mature adipocytes. In contrast, low concentration resveratrol treatment (1 to 10 μM) significantly inhibited the capacity of 3T3-L1 cells differentiated into mature adipocytes. Low dose resveratrol treatment also downregulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and perilipin protein expressions in differentiated adipocytes. Additionally, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)-induced lipolysis was inhibited by low concentration resveratrol treatment in mature adipocytes. At concentrations of 10-100 μM, resveratrol exerted cytotoxicity. In contrast, at concentrations of 1-10 μM resveratrol inhibited adipogenic differentiation in preadipocytes and suppressed lipolysis in mature adipocytes. Our results suggest that resveratrol possessed anti-obesity effects by induction of cytotoxicity at high dosage and that it influences preadipocyte differentiation and mature adipocyte lipolysis at low concentration.
We often recommend total thyroidectomy for patients with Graves’ disease who wish to have a child in the near future in order to prevent fetal or neonatal hyperthyroidism, especially if the patients’ serum thyrotropin receptor antibody (TRAb) values are high. The aim of this study was to analyze changes in serum TRAb values using a quantitative third-generation assay after total thyroidectomy and the half-lives of serum TRAb values to estimate the postoperative time needed to achieve the safe TRAb value for mothers. We retrospectively examined the records of 45 Graves’ disease patients who underwent a total thyroidectomy and had high serum TRAb values. We also evaluated factors that prolonged the postoperative reduction of serum TRAb values. The serum TRAb values decreased rapidly in most of the patients, especially within the early postoperative (3-month) period. The presence of Graves’ ophthalmopathy (GO) (p=0.001), smoking (p=0.004), and serum thyroglobulin values > 0.5 ng/mL at postoperative 12 months (p=0.039) were significantly associated with prolonged half-lives of the serum TRAb values. The median TRAb value half-life was 93.5 days in the patients without GO or smoking, 162.5 days in the patients with GO or smoking, and 357.4 days in the patients with both GO and smoking. Our findings indicate that using the half-life of patients’ serum TRAb values determined by this third-generation assay would be effective to evaluate the reduction of serum TRAb values after total thyroidectomy and to estimate the postoperative time needed to achieve the maternal safe value.
Diabetes mellitus complicated with insulin antibodies is rare in clinical practice but usually difficult to control. A high amount of insulin antibodies, especially with low affinity and high binding capacity, leads to unstable glycemic control characterized by hyperglycemia unresponsive to large volume of insulin and unanticipated hypoglycemia. There are several treatment options, such as changing insulin preparation, immunosupression with glucocorticoids, and plasmapheresis, most of which are of limited efficacy. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a novel class of drug which decrease renal glucose reabsorption and lowers plasma glucose level independent of insulin action. We report here a case with diabetes complicated with insulin antibodies who was effectively controlled by an SGLT2 inhibitor. A 47-year-old man with type 2 diabetes treated with insulin had very poor glycemic control characterized by postprandial hyperglycemia unresponsive to insulin therapy and repetitive hypoglycemia due to insulin antibodies. Treatment with ipragliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor, improved HbA1c from 8.4% to 6.0% and glycated albumin from 29.4% to 17.9%. Continuous glucose monitoring revealed improvement of glycemic profile (average glucose level from 212 mg/dL to 99 mg/dL and glycemic standard deviation from 92 mg/dL to 14 mg/dL) with disappearance of hypoglycemic events. This treatment further ameliorated the characteristics of insulin antibodies and resulted in reduced insulin requirement. SGLT2 inhibitors may offer an effective treatment option for managing the poor glycemic control in diabetes complicated with insulin antibodies.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is common in obese women with insulin resistant type 2 diabetes for which metformin treatment is getting established in addition to clomiphene. However, lean PCOS patients are sometimes accompanied with type 1 diabetes. It remains unclear whether these patients are insulin resistant and whether metformin is effective for them. A 32-year-old woman, who suffered from acne, hirsutism, and menstrual disorders since age 29, was diagnosed as PCOS by serum high LH levels and polycystic ovary on echography. Interestingly, her body mass index (BMI) had consistently been 21.0 kg/m2 since age 20. She was first treated with clomiphene for one year for infertility but it did not improve her menstrual cycle nor did she get pregnant during that period. She was then assessed with diabetes mellitus and subsequently diagnosed as type 1 diabetes with mild hyperglycemia (HbA1c 6.0%). Since her insulin secretion was still well preserved, to assess insulin sensitivity, hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp test was performed and showed her to be insulin resistant. Low dose insulin and low dose metformin treatment was started without clomiphene. After her ovulation and menstrual cycle were ameliorated only one month later, her treatment was supplemented with clomiphene for the next three months enabling her to at last become pregnant. This report highlights the efficacy of metformin in lean PCOS with type 1 diabetes. Insulin therapy is essential for type 1 diabetes but hyperinsulinemia potentially exacerbates PCOS through hyperandrogenism. Metformin is therefore recommended for treatment of lean PCOS with type 1 diabetes as well as common obese PCOS with type 2 diabetes.
Mutations in GNAS, which encodes Gsα, have been documented in detail, particularly in human pituitary GH-secreting adenomas. Mutations have also recently been reported in adrenal cortisol-producing adenomas (CPAs), in addition to those in the PRKACA gene. However, mutations have not yet been examined in aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs). Therefore, we herein investigated mutations in the GNAS gene in APAs. Two of the 15 (13%) CPAs with overt Cushing’s syndrome and one of the 9 (11%) CPAs with subclinical Cushing’s syndrome examined had the somatic mutations, p.R201S and p.R201C in the GNAS gene. We identified mutations in the GNAS gene (p.R201C) in 2 out of the 33 (6%) APAs tested, both of which showed autonomous cortisol secretion, while 24 APAs had mutations in the KCNJ5 gene (18 with p.G151R and 6 with p.L168R). These GNAS and KCNJ5 mutations were mutually exclusive in these adenomas. We herein demonstrated for the first time the presence of GNAS mutations in APAs, as well as in some cortisol-secreting adenomas. Our results suggest that these mutations, in addition to mutations in the KCNJ5 gene and other genes such as ATP1A1, ATP2B3 and CACNA1D, may be responsible for the tumorigenesis of APAs and CPAs with subclinical Cushing’s syndrome.