The two types of prognostic factors of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) are static and dynamic. The following static prognostic factors have been conventionally adopted: age, tumor size, extrathyroid extension, lymph node metastasis, and distant metastasis based on pre-, intra- and post-operative findings. These factors are useful to decide therapeutic strategies for PTC patients, including the extent of surgery and radioactive iodine (RAI) ablation. However, even the combination of these factors evaluated pathologically postoperatively is not good enough at predicting recurrence in clinical settings. The dynamic prognostic factors of changes in serum thyroglobulin (Tg) and thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) values in patients who have undergone a total thyroidectomy are important to evaluate the progression of carcinoma recurrence and to predict patients’ cause-specific survival, regardless of their backgrounds and the clinicopathological features of their PTC. Dynamic prognostic factors are superior to static prognostic factors in terms of expressing the condition of recurrence on a real-time basis.
The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of C1q/TNF related protein 3 (CTRP3), a novel adipokine, on the expression and secretion of adiponectin, leptin, visfatin, and apelin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The effect of insulin resistance on the impact was also investigated. 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with different concentrations (0, 10, 50, 250, 1250 ng/mL) CTRP3 for 12 h, and with 250 ng/mL CTRP3 for different times (0, 6, 12, 24, 48 h). The expression of adipokines between normal and insulin resistant adipocytes, as well as between the adipocytes pre-treated with and without Compound C were compared. The secretion and gene expression of the adipokines were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respectively. The relative expression of AMPK (thr172) was detected by western blot analysis. With the increase in CTRP3 concentration or the duration of the treatment, the secretion of adiponectin, leptin, visfatin and apelin were all increased accordingly, which was significant under the treatment with 250 ng/mL and 1250 ng/mL CTRP3 for 12 h as well as 250 ng/mL CTRP3 for 12 h, 24 h and 48 h. Gene expression showed a similar trend. The secretion and gene expression of adipokines in insulin resistant adipocytes were all decreased significantly in comparison with that of normal adipocytes. The secretion secretion and gene expression of adiponectin, and the relative expression of AMPK (thr172) in adipocytes pre-treated with Compound C were decreased significantly in comparison with that in adipocytes without Compound C pretreatment. Thus, CTRP3 increased the expression and secretion of adiponectin, leptin, visfatin, and apelin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, while insulin resistance inhibited the effects. CTRP3 up-regulated the expression of adiponectin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes through AMPK signaling pathway.
This randomized, prospective study was conducted in 76 subjects to assess whether low-dose (0.5-2 mg/day) glimepiride, in combination therapy with sitagliptin, improves glycemic control in a dose-dependent manner in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. Eligible subjects had been treated with glimepiride at doses of 3-6 mg/day for at least 3 months and had a HbA1c level of ≥6.9%. Subjects were randomly assigned to three treatment groups of reduced doses of glimepiride (0.5 mg/day, 1 mg/day, or 2 mg/day) in addition to sitagliptin for 24 weeks. The primary efficacy analysis evaluated the change in HbA1c from baseline to week 24. Secondary efficacy endpoints included the changes in fasting plasma glucose, insulin secretion capacity, and β-cell function. Safety endpoints included hypoglycemia and any adverse event. Despite dose reduction of glimepiride, combination therapy with sitagliptin induced significant improvements in HbA1c levels (-0.8%, p < 0.001). Insulin secretion parameters (CPI, SUIT) also increased significantly. There were no significant differences between groups in changes from baseline HbA1c, insulin secretion capacity, and β-cell function (proinsulin/insulin) at 24 weeks of combination therapy. Multivariate analysis showed that baseline HbA1c was the only predictor for efficacy of combination therapy with sitagliptin and low-dose glimeripide. No changes in body weight were noted and no symptomatic hypoglycemia was documented. These findings indicate that combination therapy with sitagliptin and low-dose glimepiride (0.5 mg/day) is both effective for glycemic control and safe in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with high-dose glimepiride.
Effective treatments for malignant neuroendocrine tumors are under development. While iodine-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine (131I-MIBG) radiotherapy has been used in the treatment of malignant neuroendocrine tumors, there are few studies evaluating its therapeutic effects and safety in a multicenter cohort. In the current study, we sought to evaluate the effects and safety of 131I-MIBG therapy for conditions including malignant pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma within a multicenter cohort. Forty-eight malignant neuroendocrine tumors (37 pheochromocytoma and 11 paraganglioma) from four centers underwent clinical 131I-MIBG radiotherapy. The tumor responses were observed before and 3 to 6 months after the 131I-MIBG radiotherapy in accordance with RECIST criteria. We also evaluated the data for any adverse effects. The four centers performed a total of 87 131I-MIBG treatments on 48 patients between January 2000 and March 2009. Of the treatments, 65 were evaluable using RECIST criteria. One partial response (PR), 40 stable disease (SD), and 9 progressive disease (PD) in malignant pheochromocytoma were observed after each treatment. Fourteen SD and one PD-were observed in paraganglioma. Patients with normal hypertension (systolic blood pressure (BP) > 130 mmHg) showed significantly reduced systolic BP after the initial follow-up (n=10, 138.1±8.2 to 129.5±13.5 mmHg, P=0.03). In adult neuroendocrine tumors with a treatment-basis analysis, there were side effects following 41 treatments (47.1%) and most of them (90.2%) were minor. In this multicenter registry, PR or SD was achieved in 84.6% of the treatment occasions in adult neuroendocrine tumors through 131I-MIBG radiotherapy. This indicated that most of the 131I-MIBG radiotherapy was performed safely without significant side effects.
As Th22 subsets are identified, their involvement in the pathogenesis of numerous autoimmune diseases has become apparent. In this study, we investigated differentiation of Th22 cells in the autoimmune thyroid diseases including Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) and Graves’ disease (GD). Besides, we also explored the involvement of Th22 cells in an iodine-induced autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) model (i.e., NOD.H-2h4 mice). In HT patients, we showed the level of circulating Th22 cells correlated with the level of serum IL-22, and was significantly higher than in GD patients and healthy control subjects. Levels of serum IL-6, a major Th22 cell differentiation effector, were also higher in HT, and correlated with Th22 cells concentration. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from HT patients produced larger amounts of IL-6 in vitro than did those isolated from other groups. Furthermore, unlike those from GD patients, T lymphocytes from HT patients showed an enhanced differentiation in vitro into Th22 cells in the presence of recombinant IL-6 and TNF-α. In addition, levels of circulating Th22 cells and titers of thyroid peroxidase antibody were positively correlated in HT patients. In NOD.H-2h4 mice, higher numbers of Th22 cells were observed in the spleens of the AIT group, while splenocytes of this group also produced larger amounts of IL-6 and IL-22 in vitro compared with the control. Intra-thyroid infiltrating IL-22+ lymphocytes were significantly increased in mice of the AIT group compared with the control. Our results indicate that Th22 cells may contribute to the pathogenesis of HT.
Progranulin (PRGN) was recently identified as one of the adipokines involved in the development of insulin resistance. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the importance of PRGN as a novel marker for metabolic diseases in Japanese. A total of 138 subjects were recruited by the Aijinkai Total Health Care Center. Physical examination, blood sample examination and total body CT scan were performed for all participants. Serum PRGN levels were examined in subjects with or without metabolic syndrome and with or without liver enzyme elevation. Association study of serum PRGN levels and regression analysis of the relationship of elevated liver enzymes to representative metabolic parameters were performed. The metabolic syndrome group exhibited older age, and higher BMI, blood pressure, fasting glucose, HbA1c, IRI, HOMA-R, TG, FFA, CRP, AST, ALT, LDH, and ALP, and larger visceral fat area, subcutaneous fat area and visceral fat area/subcutaneous fat area. Serum PRGN concentrations were significantly higher in the metabolic syndrome group than in the non-metabolic syndrome group. Bivariate correlation analysis revealed that serum PRGN concentrations correlated positively and significantly with AST, ALT, LDH, γGTP, ALP, waist circumference and visceral fat area. The group with elevated liver enzymes exhibited higher BMI, blood pressure, IRI, HOMA-R, and PRGN level and larger waist circumference and visceral fat area than the group without them. In logistic regression analysis, visceral fat area and PRGN were significantly predictive of elevated liver enzymes. These results suggest that serum PRGN level as well as visceral fat are associated closely with liver dysfunction.
The detrimental effect of high parathyroid hormone (PTH) on bone has not been adequately evaluated in vitamin D-sufficient Koreans. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of high PTH on bone mineral density (BMD) in such a population. A total of 5,403 subjects (2,644 men and 2,759 postmenopausal women; ≥50 years old) were selected from the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Subjects were divided into four groups according to vitamin D status (<20 and ≥20 ng/mL) and PTH levels (≤65 and >65 pg/mL). Total hip and spine BMD were evaluated in each group. High PTH level was found in 50% of vitamin D-deficient subjects and 35% of vitamin D-sufficient subjects. In the vitamin D-deficient group, subjects with normal PTH level had higher total hip and spine BMD than those with high PTH after adjusting for multiple confounding factors, regardless of gender. In the vitamin D-sufficient group, only women with high PTH showed lower total hip and spine BMD than those with normal PTH. Multivariable linear regression analysis found that PTH level was independently associated with total hip BMD in vitamin D-sufficient women as well as vitamin D-insufficient women, but no association was found in men. In conclusion, high serum PTH level has an additive detrimental effect on BMD in postmenopausal women even though they had sufficient vitamin D levels.
Subclinical Cushing’s syndrome (SCS) is characterized by subtle autonomous cortisol secretion from adrenal tumors without specific signs and symptoms of hypercortisolism. Patients with SCS have a high prevalence of “lifestyle-related diseases,” such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and osteoporosis. Long-term follow-up of SCS patients is reportedly indispensable for establishing indications for surgical treatment of SCS. We performed a follow-up survey of 27 patients with SCS (median: 5.3 years) and compared those who had undergone surgical treatment (n=15) with those who had not (n=12). The mean diameter of tumors was 31 mm; 16 (59%) patients had unilateral lesions and 11 (41%) carried bilateral ones. In 67% and 60% of the treatment group, respectively, hypertension and diabetes mellitus improved. We also noticed that eight of 11 (73%) SCS patients with bilateral adrenal tumors had extra-adrenal malignancies in various tissues. Interestingly, among nine SCS patients who had malignancies, eight showed bilateral adrenal uptake in 131I-aldosterol scintigraphy. The results imply that surgical treatment can reduce cardiovascular risks in SCS patients. Screening for malignancy may be necessary in patients with bilateral adrenal tumors suspected of autonomous hypersecretion of cortisol from both sides.
We evaluated the effect of sitagliptin on glycemic control, endogenous insulin secretion, and beta cell function in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) receiving a combination of oral antidiabetics and basal insulin analog glargine (basal-supported oral therapy [BOT]). Twenty-one patients showing inadequate glycemic control with BOT were given dipeptidylpeptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP-4I) sitagliptin at 50 mg/day for 12 weeks. Clinical markers of glycemic control, HbA1c, glycated albumin (GA), and 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG), were measured before and 4 and 12 weeks after the start of sitagliptin. A 2-hour morning meal test was performed upon enrollment and at 12 weeks, and plasma glucose (PG), serum C-peptide, and plasma intact proinsulin (PI) were measured. HbA1c, GA, and 1,5-AG at 4 and 12 weeks were significantly improved over enrollment levels. The area under the PG concentration curve (AUC-PG) during the meal test at 12 weeks was significantly reduced (from 350 ± 17 mg ･ hr/dL before sitagliptin treatment to 338 ± 21 mg ･ hr/dL [mean ± SE], P < 0.05,); the AUC-C-peptide was unchanged (from 3.4 ± 0.4 ng ･ hr/mL to 3.6 ± 0.5 ng ･ hr/mL). However, both fasting and 2-hour PI/C-peptide ratios at 12 weeks were significantly decreased (from 13.3 ± 2.3 to 11.1 ± 2.0 [P < 0 .05] and from 9.5 ± 1.6 to 5.3 ± 0.9 [P < 0.01], respectively). Adding sitagliptin to BOT in Japanese T2DM patients appears to improve glycemic control without increasing endogenous insulin secretion and to reduce fasting and 2-hour postprandial PI/C-peptide ratios.
Geographic differences have been reported to affect the morphological and molecular features of papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs). The area around Chernobyl is well-known to be iodine-deficient in contrast to Japan, an iodine-rich country. We reviewed histological differences in adult PTC between Ukraine and Japan. In total, 112 PTCs from age- and sex-matched adults (Ukraine 56, Japan 56) were evaluated histologically for several factors including tumor size, capsulation, tumor components (papillary, follicular, solid, trabecular), lymph node metastasis, extrathyroid invasion, lymphocytic infiltration, oxyphilic metaplasia, and MIB-1 index. We demonstrated that tumors were smaller (1.56 vs. 2.13 cm, p<0.05) and more solid and that lymph node metastasis was less frequent (14.3% vs. 48.2%, p<0.001) in Ukrainian cases. PTC subtype distribution was significantly different between the two groups. Solid variant (8.9% vs. 1.8%) and mixed subtypes with solid components were more frequent in Ukrainian patients. In contrast, classical papillary carcinomas were more frequent in Japanese cases (10.7% vs. 50.0%, p<0.001). Marked oxyphilic metaplasia was more common in Ukrainian cases (33.9 % vs. 8.9 %, p<0.001). MIB-1 index was significantly higher in Ukrainian cases (2.9% vs. 1.8%, p<0.001). However, the frequencies of tumor capsule formation and background lymphoid follicle formation around the tumor were similar between groups. Morphological differences in adult PTCs were similar to those in pediatric PTCs as reported previously, suggesting that morphogenesis of PTC is influenced by environmental factors, especially dietary iodine, as well as genetic factors.