Inflammatory cytokines secreted from adipocytes are known to induce hypertension and insulin resistance resulting in Type 2 diabetes. Mitochondria, which is the keystone of energy metabolism, are continuously controlling cellular states probably including inflammatory states. In this study, we investigated the role of mitochondria on inflammation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We cultured 3T3-L1 cells for 17 days after differentiation and treated them with a mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation uncoupler, FCCP (2 μM in culture medium), for 24 hours. In the cells treated with FCCP, mitochondria appeared to divide and spread away from the lipid droplets. The mRNA expression of TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-α), IL-6 (Interleukin 6) and MCP-1 (monocyte chemotactic protein 1) in those cells was significantly increased, indicating that mitochondrial dysfunction induced inflammatory changes in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.
The purpose of this paper is to study su, a colloquial variant form of the copula verb in Japanese. The form has been regarded as an abbreviation of copular verb desu and used mostly by young males in a casual and friendly speech/interaction. For example, they may say 5-ji ssu (it’s 5 o’clock) instead of 5-ji desu. This form has been regarded as a new type of honorifics, showing respect and familiarity at the same time. Through its more popularity and wider use, however, this colloquial form has acquired a new meaning. Instead of showing respect to the hearer, the new type of su may convey an impression that the speaker is a person being carefree and much less polite.
In this paper, these two types of su are examined and it is assumed that the new type of su is no longer a copula variant but a discourse marker, implying the speaker’s feelings or attitude toward the proposition denoted by the utterance. It is also suggested that the meaning discrepancy between these two types may be accounted for within the Relevance Theory framework.
It is difficult to simultaneously visualize tooth size and shape changes in dental characteristics on a single chart. A chart that includes scales for mesiodistal crown diameter, buccolingual crown diameter, crown module and crown index on a single chart is proposed – the Dental Proportion Chart. The development and use of the chart are described.