Internal Medicine
Online ISSN : 1349-7235
Print ISSN : 0918-2918
ISSN-L : 0918-2918
  • Yuki Miyamoto, Hiroyuki Ohbe, Miho Ishimaru, Hiroki Matsui, Kiyohide F ...
    2020 年 59 巻 15 号 p. 1789-1794
    発行日: 2020/08/01
    公開日: 2020/08/01
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2020/04/23
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス

    Objective Carbazochrome sodium sulfonate (CSS) has been routinely used to treat bleeding; however, no study has examined the effect of CSS for gastrointestinal bleeding. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effect of CSS for colonic diverticular bleeding.

    Methods We performed a nationwide observational study using the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination inpatient database. We identified patients who were admitted for diverticular bleeding from July 2010 to March 2018. Patients who received CSS on the day of admission were defined as the CSS group, and those not receiving CSS were defined as the control group. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were length of stay, total costs, and blood transfusion within 7 days of admission. Propensity score matching analyses were performed to compare outcomes between the two groups.

    Results A total of 59,965 patients met our eligibility criteria. Of these, 14,437 (24%) patients received CSS on the day of admission. One-to-one propensity score matching created 14,379 matched pairs. There was no significant difference in the in-hospital mortality between the CSS and control groups (0.6% vs. 0.5%, respectively; odds ratio: 0.96; 95% confidence interval: 0.72-1.29). The length of stay was longer in the CSS group than in the control group (11.4 vs. 11.0 days, respectively; difference: 0.44; 95% confidence interval: 0.14-0.73). There were no significant differences in the total costs or the proportion of patients receiving blood transfusion between the groups.

    Conclusions CSS may not reduce in-hospital mortality, length of stay, total costs, or the need for blood transfusion in patients with colonic diverticular bleeding.

  • Hiroto Suzuki, Masanao Nakamura, Takeshi Yamamura, Keiko Maeda, Tsunak ...
    2020 年 59 巻 15 号 p. 1795-1801
    発行日: 2020/08/01
    公開日: 2020/08/01
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス

    Objective With the advent of endoscopic treatment, the detailed diagnosis of colorectal neoplasms made using magnifying colonoscopy has become increasingly important. However, insertion difficulty causes pain in unsedated colonoscopy. The aim of this prospective observational study was to clarify the factors associated with a patient's pain in unsedated colonoscopy using a magnifying endoscope.

    Methods Patient pain was assessed using a numerical rating scale (0-10) immediately after the procedure. We defined 5 as mild enough pain that patients would not be reluctant to undergo another colonoscopy. Acceptable pain was defined as 5 or less and severe pain was defined as 8 to 10. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed using the pain scale score as a dependent variable.

    Results A total of consecutive 600 patients undergoing unsedated colonoscopies were evaluated to assess their abdominal pain. The completion rate was 99.5% (597/600). The mean pain scale score was 3.88±2.38. The rate of acceptable pain was 80.5% (483/600). The rate of severe pain was 6.7% (40/600) including the incomplete cases. A comparison of polyp-positive and polyp-negative cases revealed no marked difference in patient pain (3.82±2.24 vs. 3.94±2.49, respectively; p=0.590) or insertion time (6.62±3.98 vs. 6.29±4.21, p=0.090), while more observation time was needed in polyp-positive cases than in polyp-negative ones (16.30±4.95 vs. 13.08±4.69, p<0.01). Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses revealed that an older age, colectomy, antispasmodic agent use, and a small-diameter endoscope were significant factors associated with less patient pain. In particular, a small-diameter endoscope induces significantly more acceptable pain than a non-small diameter endoscope [85.63% (274/320) vs. 73.93% (207/280), p=0.00003].

    Conclusion Unsedated colonoscopy using a magnifying endoscope by an expert may result in acceptable pain levels. The use of an antispasmodic agent, particularly hyoscine N-butyl bromide, and a small-diameter endoscope are recommended for reducing abdominal pain during unsedated colonoscopy.

  • Shinji Nishiwaki, Hiroko Fujimoto, Takuya Kurobe, Atsushi Baba, Masahi ...
    2020 年 59 巻 15 号 p. 1803-1809
    発行日: 2020/08/01
    公開日: 2020/08/01
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2020/05/26
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス

    Objective As direct jejunal feeding often causes great fluctuation in glucose levels, continuous or slow infusion is recommended for jejunal tube-fed patients. However, continuous feeding results in prolonged immobility and the loss of activities of daily living. We investigated whether or not intermittent feeding of a low-carbohydrate high-monounsaturated fatty acid (LC/HM) nutrient formula reduces glucose fluctuation in patients who have undergone jejunotomy.

    Methods Ten bed-ridden non-diabetic patients receiving enteral feeding via a jejunostomy tube were enrolled in this study. LC/HM formula and standard control formula were infused in cross-over order for each patient at a speed of 160 kcal/h. Blood glucose levels were monitored by a continuous glucose monitoring system during the investigation period.

    Results The mean and standard deviation of the glucose concentrations and mean amplitude of glucose excursion (MAGE) were markedly lower while receiving LC/HM formula than while receiving control standard formula (104 vs. 136 mg/dL, 18.1 vs. 58.1 mg/dL, 50.8 vs. 160 mg/dL, respectively). The post-infusion hyperglycemia [area under the curve (AUC) >140 mg/dL] and peak value of the glucose level were also significantly lower in patients fed LC/HM than the control (25.7 vs. 880 mg・h/dL and 153 vs. 272 mg/dL, respectively). Reactive hypoglycemia (AUC <70 mg/dL) was also significantly lower (0.63 vs. 16.7 mg・h/dL) and the minimum value of the glucose level higher (78.4 vs. 61.8 mg/dL) in patients fed LC/HM than the control.

    Conclusion The LC/HM formula is considered to markedly inhibit glycemic spikes and prevent rebound hypoglycemia in patients who receive enteral feeding after jejunostomy.

  • Yuya Seko, Michihisa Moriguchi, Aya Takahashi, Shinya Okishio, Seita K ...
    2020 年 59 巻 15 号 p. 1811-1817
    発行日: 2020/08/01
    公開日: 2020/08/01
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス

    Objective Although most patients who obtain a sustained virological response (SVR) show an improved liver function, some show decreased platelet counts after the eradication of hepatitis C virus (HCV). The aim of this retrospective study was to clarify the association of the liver and spleen volumes with the platelet count after SVR achieved by direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment.

    Methods This study enrolled 36 consecutive patients treated by DAAs who obtained an SVR between September 2014 and December 2018. The liver and spleen volumes were derived from computed tomography scans obtained at pretreatment, SVR, and 48 weeks after SVR. No patient developed hepatocellular carcinoma during this study.

    Results Compared with pretreatment, the median aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, albumin serum levels, and platelet counts were significantly improved at SVR and 48 weeks after SVR. The liver/spleen volumes per body weight had decreased significantly from 22.5/4.2 mL/kg at baseline to 21.1/3.6 mL/kg at 48 weeks after SVR. The change in the liver volume was associated with the change in the platelet count, and the change in the spleen volume was negatively associated with the change in the serum albumin level. A multivariate analysis identified the change in the liver volume (≥95%, odds ratio 76.9, p=0.005) as the factor associated with improvement in the platelet count at 48 weeks after SVR. The patients with an increased liver volume at 48 weeks after SVR showed an increased platelet count.

    Conclusion Both the liver and spleen volume decreased significantly after the eradication of HCV. The patients with a re-increased liver volume showed a rapid increase in the platelet count.

  • Akira Naito, Seiichiro Sakao, Jiro Terada, Shunichiro Iwasawa, Takayuk ...
    2020 年 59 巻 15 号 p. 1819-1826
    発行日: 2020/08/01
    公開日: 2020/08/01
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス

    Objective Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a form of pulmonary hypertension caused by persistent thromboemboli of the pulmonary arteries, and one of its etiological factors may be inflammation. Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is reportedly an important complication of pulmonary hypertension. However, the association between SDB and inflammation in CTEPH has been undefined. This prospective observational study analyzed the association between the severity of SDB, pulmonary hemodynamic parameters and the systemic inflammation level in patients with CTEPH.

    Methods CTEPH patients admitted for a right heart catheter (RHC) examination were consecutively enrolled from November 2017 to June 2019 at the pulmonary hypertension center in Chiba University Hospital. Patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) were also enrolled as a control group. All patients underwent a sleep study using a WatchPAT 200 during admission.

    Results The CTEPH patients showed worse nocturnal hypoxemia, oxygen desaturation index (ODI), and apnea-hypopnea index than the IPAH patients. Among these factors, only the nocturnal mean percutaneous oxygen saturation (SpO2) was negatively correlated with the pulmonary hemodynamic parameters. The circulating tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) level was also high in the CTEPH group, and a multivariate analysis showed that the nocturnal mean SpO2 was the most important predictive factor for a high TNF-α level.

    Conclusion We showed that CTEPH patients had high serum TNF-α levels and that the nocturnal mean SpO2 was a predictive factor for serum TNF-α levels. Further investigations focused on nocturnal hypoxemia and the TNF-α level may provide novel insight into the etiology and new therapeutic strategies for CTEPH.

  • Akinori Hayashi, Koji Takano, Yuko Kawakami, Mamiko Hitomi, Yasuhiro O ...
    2020 年 59 巻 15 号 p. 1827-1833
    発行日: 2020/08/01
    公開日: 2020/08/01
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス

    Objective In the medical treatment of Graves' disease, we sometimes encounter patients who gain weight after the onset of the disease. To estimate the energy required during the course of treatment when hyperthyroidism ameliorates, we measured the resting energy expenditure (REE) and body composition in patients with Graves' disease before and during treatment in the short-term.

    Methods Twenty patients with newly diagnosed Graves' disease were enrolled, and our REE data of 19 healthy volunteers were used. The REE was measured by a metabolic analyzer, and the basal energy expenditure (BEE) was estimated by the Harris-Benedict formula. The body composition, including body weight, fat mass (FM), muscle mass (MM) and lean body mass (LBM), were measured by a multi-frequency body composition analyzer. We tailored the nutritional guidance based on the measured REE.

    Results Serum thyrotropin levels were significantly increased at three and six months. Serum free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine and REE values were significantly decreased at one, three and six months. The REE/BEE ratio was 1.58±0.28 at the onset and significantly declined to 1.34±0.34, 1.06±0.19 and 1.01±0.16 at 1, 3 and 6 months, respectively. Body weight, MM and LBM significantly increased at three and six months.

    Conclusion The REE significantly decreased during treatment of Graves' disease. The decline was evident as early as one month after treatment. The REE after treatment was lower than in healthy volunteers, which may lead to weight gain. These data suggest that appropriate nutritional guidance is necessary with short-term treatment before the body weight normalizes in order to prevent an overweight condition and the emergence of metabolic disorders.

  • Daisuke Himeji, Gen-ichi Tanaka, Chikara Fukuyama, Ritsuya Shiiba, Ats ...
    2020 年 59 巻 15 号 p. 1835-1839
    発行日: 2020/08/01
    公開日: 2020/08/01
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2020/04/30
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス

    Objective The present study aimed to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of endoscopic bronchial occlusion (EBO) with endobronchial Watanabe spigots (EWSs) for the management of prolonged pulmonary air leaks, such as intractable pneumothorax, pyothorax with bronchial fistula, and postoperative air leakage.

    Methods This was a retrospective study. Between April 2005 and March 2018, we recruited 21 patients with intractable pneumothorax (10 cases), pyothorax with bronchial fistula (7 cases), and postsurgical pulmonary fistula (4 cases) in whom appropriate drainage for 2 weeks had been unsuccessful and who were unsuitable for surgery. An EWS was inserted using a flexible bronchoscope via an endotracheal or a tracheostomy tube.

    Results The mean number of sessions with EWS procedures was 1.94, and the mean number of inserted EWS per patient was 6.5. In addition to EWS procedures, pleural washing and pleural adhesion therapy were performed in all cases with pyothorax, whereas pleural adhesion therapy was performed in three patients with pneumothorax. The successful treatment rate was 85.7%. Reduction of air leakage was observed in 19/21 patients. The mean duration of reduction of air leaks was 4.1 days (median, 1; range, 0-24 days) following EWS procedures. The mean duration from tube insertion to chest tube removal was 43.4 days (median, 29; range, 16-105 days). Complications included spigot migration and infection (aspergillosis); no complications caused significant mortality.

    Conclusion Performing EBO using an EWS appears to be a reasonable option for the management of intractable pneumothorax, pyothorax with pulmonary fistula, and postoperative air leakage.

  • Takashi Onuma, Mami Iida, Yuko Kito, Kumiko Tanabe, Akiko Kojima, Kiyo ...
    2020 年 59 巻 15 号 p. 1841-1847
    発行日: 2020/08/01
    公開日: 2020/08/01
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2020/04/30
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス

    Objective Cigarette smoking is a risk factor for arteriopathy, including acute coronary syndrome, stroke and peripheral vascular disease. Thus, cessation is strongly recommended in order to reduce these risks. We recently demonstrated that smoking cessation causes temporary hyper-aggregability of human platelets. We previously showed that heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) is released from human platelets stimulated by collagen, accompanied by its phosphorylation. Accumulating evidence indicates potent roles of extracellular HSP27 as a modulator of inflammation. In the present study, using the stored samples obtained in the previous study, we investigated the effect of cigarette smoking cessation on the release of phosphorylated-HSP27 from collagen-activated human platelets (n=15 patients).

    Methods We enrolled patients who visited smoking cessation outpatient services between January 2012 and November 2014. Platelet-rich plasma, chronologically obtained before and after the cessation, was stimulated by collagen using a PA-200 aggregometer in the previous study. The levels of phosphorylated-HSP27 released from platelets were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The phosphorylation of HSP27 in platelets was evaluated by a Western blot analysis.

    Results Cessation of cigarette smoking significantly upregulated the levels of collagen-stimulated release of phosphorylated-HSP27 at four and eight weeks after quitting smoking compared to before cessation. However, there was no significant difference between the levels before cessation and those at 12 weeks after cessation. The levels of phosphorylated-HSP27 stimulated by collagen in the platelets at four weeks after smoking cessation were remarkably enhanced compared to before cessation.

    Conclusion Cigarette smoking cessation temporarily enhances the collagen-stimulated release of phosphorylated-HSP27 from human platelets in the short term.