Internal Medicine
Online ISSN : 1349-7235
Print ISSN : 0918-2918
ISSN-L : 0918-2918
  • Masahiro Morita, Chikara Ogawa, Akina Omura, Teruyo Noda, Atsushi Kubo ...
    2020 年 59 巻 4 号 p. 471-477
    発行日: 2020/02/15
    公開日: 2020/02/15
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス

    Objective The usefulness of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) for making decisions in the treatment of liver abscess is unknown.

    Methods We evaluated the internal blood flow in the arterial-predominant phase by CEUS using Sonazoid® in 21 patients. The stain area rate was evaluated in maximum parting plane of abscess in CEUS. Patients were divided into two groups: the vascular phase enhancement (VE) group, in which ≥50% of the abscess cavity was enhanced (12 patients), and the vascular phase non-enhancement (VNE) group, in which <50% of the abscess cavity was enhanced (9 patients). The rate of patients who were cured by conservative treatment alone was examined in both groups. The defect rate of all liver abscesses in the post-vascular phase was also evaluated.

    Results In the VE group, improvement by conservative treatment alone was obtained in 11 out of 12 patients (91.7%), while in the VNE group, improvement by conservative treatment alone was obtained in only 1 out of 9 patients (11.1%), a significant difference (p<0.001). In the VE group, one patient did not improve with conservative treatment alone because the abscess ruptured near the liver surface. In the VE group, the abscess size was smaller than in the VNE group. By examining the defect rate in the post-vascular phase, it was found that 16 out of 21 patients (76.2%) showed 71% or more defects.

    Conclusion The enhancement rate in the arterial-predominant phase of CEUS was considered useful for determining the treatment approach for liver abscess.

  • Tomonori Iwata, Takahisa Mori
    2020 年 59 巻 4 号 p. 479-483
    発行日: 2020/02/15
    公開日: 2020/02/15
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス

    Objective Carotid artery stenting (CAS) in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis is characterized by high complication rates. These patients are excluded from clinical trials of CAS. The purpose of our retrospective study was to investigate the long-term clinical outcomes of CAS in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis.

    Methods CAS was performed under local anesthesia. The technical success rate, periprocedural complications, 30-day major vascular event rate (stroke, myocardial infarction, and/or death), 3-month morbidity and mortality rates, and 5-year survival probability were investigated.

    Patients Nineteen patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis were identified.

    Results The mean age of the patients was 69 years. Periprocedural complications occurred in two patients (confusion following CAS in one and transient hemiparesis in the other). Complete neurological recovery was achieved in both patients. No major cardiovascular events occurred within 30 days after CAS. Asymptomatic intracranial hemorrhage only occurred in one patient, and seven patients died during the follow-up period at a mean of 3.5 years after the procedure (range, 6 months to 8 years). No permanent neurologic deficit remained in the patient with intracranial hemorrhage. The causes of death were cardiovascular disease (n = 4), cancer (n = 2), and pneumonia (n = 1). No patients died of stroke. The 5-year survival probability in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis was 57%.

    Conclusion CAS in maintenance hemodialysis patients may be feasible and effective for the prevention of stroke with proper case selection, appropriate technique and strict perioperative management. The most common causes of death during the follow-up of maintenance hemodialysis patients were diseases other than stroke.

  • Kei Tachibana, Keita Matsuura, Akihiro Shindo, Hirofumi Matsuyama, Yui ...
    2020 年 59 巻 4 号 p. 485-490
    発行日: 2020/02/15
    公開日: 2020/02/15
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス

    Objective When patients take neuroleptics, the distinction between Parkinson's disease (PD) and drug-induced parkinsonism (DIP) based solely on clinical features can become difficult. At present, 123I-FP-CIT SPECT (DAT-SPECT) and 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) myocardial scintigraphy are widely used to supplement the differential diagnosis of parkinsonism. This study assessed the clinical symptoms and neurological findings in the patients suspected of having DIP based on DAT-SPECT findings.

    Methods Twenty-three patients (11 men, 12 women, age: 52-81 years old) presenting with DIP were recruited. All patients underwent neurological examinations, including brain magnetic resonance imaging and DAT-SPECT. Patients who showed abnormal DAT-SPECT results underwent MIBG myocardial scintigraphy.

    Results Eleven patients showed a reduction in the ligand uptake on DAT-SPECT (DAT-positive group), and nine of these patients showed a low delayed heart-to-mediastinum (H/M) ratio on MIBG myocardial scintigraphy. The remaining 12 patients showed normal results on DAT-SPECT (DAT-negative group). All patients in the DAT-positive group had asymmetric motor symptoms, whereas only 4 in the DAT-negative group exhibited this clinical feature (p=0.001). A detailed medical history showed that 7 of the 11 patients in the DAT-positive group had prodromal symptoms for PD. However, only 1 patient in the DAT-negative group exhibited these symptoms (p= 0.009). Although two patients in the DAT-negative group showed poor improvement, they showed a normal H/M ratio on MIBG and no response to levodopa.

    Conclusion The patients in the DAT-positive group might have prodromal symptoms that were worsened by neuroleptic drugs. The results of detailed history-taking and neurological findings seem to indicate cases of compromised dopaminergic transmission before the administration of neuroleptic drugs.