Objective Although colorectal polyps (CPs) can be observed with colon capsule endoscopy (CCE), it is difficult to determine the type of polyp using CCE. The objective of this study was to differentiate adenomatous polyps (APs) from hyperplastic polyps (HPs) with CCE.
Methods In this single-center retrospective study, an analysis was conducted on the same CPs with both CCE and colonoscopy (CS) and histopathologically diagnosed as AP or HP. The color difference (ΔE) between the polyp surface and the surrounding mucosa was calculated using the CIE1976 L*a*b* color space method on white light (WL), flexible spectral imaging color enhancement (FICE), and blue mode (BM) CP images. We investigated the ability of the ratio of the color differences (ΔE') to differentiate between APs and HPs.
Results The size of all 51 polyps (34 APs, 17 HPs) was 7.5±4.6 mm with CCE and 7.3±4.2 mm with CS, and this difference was not significant (p=0.28). The FICEΔE' of APs was 3.3±1.8, which was significantly higher than the FICEΔE' of HPs (1.3±0.6; p<0.001). A receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that FICEΔE' was useful for differentiating between APs and HPs, with an area under the curve of 0.928 (95% confidence interval, 0.843-1). The sensitivity was 91.2%, and the specificity was 88.2% with a cut-off value of 1.758.
Conclusion Using FICE on CCE images of CPs and applying the CIELAB color space method, we were able to differentiate between APs and HPs with high accuracy. This method has the potential to reduce unnecessary CS procedures.
Objective Following the introduction of magnetic resonance (MR)-conditional cardiac implantable electrical devices (CIEDs), patients with CIEDs have undergone MRI scanning more frequently. As the required settings of MRI equipment for scanning patients with a CIED vary by device, a number of precautions should be taken to allow safe examinations, including the confirmation of conditions and selection of MRI modes appropriate for pacing status in individual patients. In this study, we examined the current status and issues concerning the performance of MRI examinations in patients with an MRI-conditional CIED.
Method and Results We reviewed a total of 262 MRI scans. The most common site of MRI scanning was the head, followed by the spine, abdomen, and heart in order. Regarding the MRI mode, DOO was most often used, followed by OFF, AOO, and finally VOO mode, to maintain atrioventricular synchrony. Although no obvious adverse events were observed related to MRI scanning, there were several cases encountered that might have been predisposed to a significant incident or in which the patient's intrinsic pulse rates or subjective symptoms changed before and during scanning.
Conclusion As MRI is a very useful diagnostic tool for cerebrovascular diseases and orthopedic disorders, the demand for MRI scanning is high when treating these areas. Although MRI scanning in patients with MR-conditional devices was performed without any adverse events, there were incidents that could have potentially led to major harm. This highlights the importance of confirming the appropriate MRI mode is being used before scanning and monitoring patients during scanning.
Objective Fabry disease (FD) is a hereditary lysosomal storage disease that has been highlighted as a possible etiology of stroke at a young age and presents with other various neurological symptoms. Since FD is rare, limited information is currently available on the prevalence of neurological symptoms in Japanese patients with FD. Therefore, we examined the characteristics of neurological symptoms and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in adult Japanese patients with FD.
Methods This was a retrospective, single-center study. We reviewed neurological symptoms and brain MRI findings in the medical records of 12 adult Japanese patients with FD diagnosed by a gene analysis of the α-galactosidase gene.
Results Ten out of 12 patients with FD presented with the following neurological symptoms: acroparesthesia (n=6), headache (n=5) [migraine (n=4)], hypohidrosis (n=5), and cerebral infarction (n=3). Two and three of the patients with migraine were complicated by ischemic stroke and coronary spastic angina, respectively. Five and 10 patients presented with periventricular hyperintensity and deep white matter hyperintensity, respectively, on brain MRI. Two out of eight patients had cerebral microbleeds. Seven out of 11 patients had a dilated basilar artery diameter on magnetic resonance angiography. There were no patients with the pulvinar hyperintensity sign.
Conclusion Patients with FD present with various neurological symptoms. Headache, particularly migraine, might be a major neurological symptom in patients with FD. Since migraine, ischemic stroke, and coronary spastic angina might occur together in FD, caution is needed when administering triptan to FD patients with migraine.
Objective We aimed to develop a scoring model to predict a low disease activity (LDA) in elderly rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients initially treated with biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs).
Methods This retrospective cohort study included 82 elderly RA patients who initially received bDMARDs. The outcome was an LDA after bDMARDs initiation. We developed a predictive formula for an LDA using a multivariate analysis, the accuracy of which was assessed by the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic curves; the scoring model was developed using the formula. For each factor, approximate odds ratios were scored as an integer, divided into three groups based on the distribution of these scores. In addition, the scoring model accuracy was assessed.
Results The mean age was 73.5±6.0 years old, and 86.6% were women. An LDA was achieved in 43 patients (52.4%). The predictive formula for an LDA was prepared using six factors selected for the multivariable analysis: the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), anemia, the 28-joint disease activity score with erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR), serum level of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), diabetes mellitus (DM), and rheumatoid factor (RF). The AUC for the formula was 0.829 (95% confidence interval, 0.729-0.930). The odds ratios of the six factors were scored (DAS28-ESR and serum MMP-3=1 point, NLR, anemia, DM, and RF=2 points) and divided into three groups (≤4, 5-7, and ≥8). The high-score group (≥8) achieved a positive predictive value of 83%.
Conclusion The scoring model accurately predicted an LDA in elderly RA patients initially treated with bDMARDs.
We treated a 51-year-old Japanese man with chronic hepatitis B (viral load 7.6 LC/mL, genotype C). Hepatitis B virus DNA and HBe antigen were undetectable during the administration of the nucleic acid analogs (NUCs) lamivudine and adefovir, although the concentration of HBs antigen (HBsAg) was 851.2 IU/mL. The HBsAg levels were reduced 150-fold when pegylated-interferon (Peg-IFN) α-2a was administered weekly for 48 weeks and did not increase during the rest period. Therefore, Peg-IFNα-2a was administered twice each week. During this time, HBsAg reached undetectable concentrations, and HBs antibody was detected and continued to be detectable during the three-year follow-up. These unprecedented findings suggest that IFN may contribute to the seroclearance of HBsAg in patients treated with NUCs.
A 42-year-old woman visited our hospital due to syncope. Contrast-enhanced CT revealed portosystemic shunt, portal vein hypoplasia, and multiple liver nodules. The histological examination of a liver biopsy specimen exhibited portal vein hypoplasia and revealed that the liver tumor was positive for glutamine synthetase. The patient was therefore diagnosed with congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunt type II, and with focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH)-like nodules. She had the complication of severe portopulmonary hypertension and underwent complete shunt closure by balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO). The intrahepatic portal vein was well developed at 1 year after B-RTO, and multiple liver nodules completely regressed. Her pulmonary hypertension also improved.
A 72-year-old woman with advanced lung cancer had received systemic chemotherapy including atezolizumab. About three months after the initial administration of atezolizumab, her liver enzyme levels increased. The histopathological findings of the initial liver biopsy revealed acute inflammatory infiltrate, predominantly CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, in the hepatic lobules. We diagnosed her with atezolizumab-induced immune-related acute hepatitis. Oral corticosteroid therapy successfully improved the elevation of serum aminotransferases. A sequential liver biopsy demonstrated the rapid progression of liver fibrosis. Because hepatocellular carcinoma occurs most often in advanced cases of chronic liver disease, we should pay close attention to immune-related acute hepatic injury when treating patients with advanced liver diseases using atezolizumab.
We observed liver failure with a presumed etiology of echinococcosis in an 89-year-old woman. Our patient had been born and then resided on Rebun Island until she was 12 years old. At 46 years old, she had been referred to our hospital due to right abdominal pain. Ultrasound had revealed multilocular cysts in the right lobe of the liver. At 84 years old, the hepatic cyst occupied nearly the entire liver with ring-shaped calcification along the cyst wall. The patient was diagnosed with decompensated cirrhosis and hepatic hydatid disease based on typical imaging and the long-term natural clinical course.
A 59-year-old woman who had been diagnosed with cirrhotic primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) 5 years earlier was admitted for severe jaundice (total bilirubin: 30.1 mg/dL). We suspected that her cirrhotic PBC had deteriorated acutely for some reason. Her general condition deteriorated quickly, and she passed away on day 18 of admission. Hepatitis E virus (HEV)-IgA antibodies were positive, and Genotype 3b HEV involvement was confirmed from a blood sample taken on admission. Histopathological findings revealed cirrhosis and submassive loss and necrosis of hepatocytes. Clinicians should consider the possibility of acute HEV infection as a trigger for acute PBC exacerbation.
Endoscopic hilar multiple stenting is challenging. A 68-year-old patient had self-expandable metallic stents (SEMSs) inserted for unresectable hilar malignant biliary obstruction. After the SEMSs were inserted into the left hepatic duct and bile duct branch of segment (B) 6, a new SEMS with a wide mesh and slim delivery system was inserted into the right anterior hepatic duct. However, liver abscess and dilated B7 were observed on computed tomography; therefore, an additional new SEMS was quickly and easily inserted into B7. After the placement of these four SEMSs, the liver abscess improved. The new SEMS was effective for hilar multiple biliary drainage.
Extravascular cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) defibrillators (CRT-Ds) are ideal for recurrent blood stream infections. Furthermore, CRT is useful for patients intolerant to right ventricular (RV) pacing. The case was a 65-year-old man with a CRT-D who presented with a blood stream infection. Because he was hemodynamically unstable with temporary RV pacing, an epicardial CRT device was re-implanted concomitantly through a surgical procedure. After the operation, a subcutaneous implantable cardioverter defibrillator (S-ICD) was placed. However, not all pacing is eligible for S-ICD screening. Combination therapy with an epicardial CRT device and S-ICD might be an alternate option for cardiac surgery cases.
We herein report a case of nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis (NBTE) in a patient with previously undiagnosed lung cancer. A 62-year-old woman presented to our hospital with multiple cerebral infarctions. There was no evidence of valvular heart disease or vegetations. Whole-leg ultrasonography revealed deep vein thrombosis of the left peroneal vein. We administered direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) for a presumed diagnosis of paradoxical embolisms caused by patent foramen ovale. Unfortunately, she experienced further embolization and died. At a postmortem examination, she was diagnosed with NBTE and metastatic adenocarcinoma of the lung. Our experience with this patient suggests that DOACs may be an insufficient treatment for NBTE.
A 48-year-old woman without any medical history visited an outpatient clinic with a chief complaint of cough persisting for more than 1 year and was diagnosed with organizing pneumonia. Computed tomography showed wall thickening with luminal stenosis of the main branch vessels of the aorta, and a detailed examination including fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography revealed Takayasu arteritis. There have been some reports of combined organizing pneumonia in similar vasculitis cases, but Takayasu arteritis and organizing pneumonia have not been reported to be associated. This case can be referred to when considering the association of lung lesions with Takayasu arteritis.
A 71-year-old Japanese man with progressive kidney failure was referred to our hospital. Laboratory tests showed elevated IgG4 levels. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) revealed soft tissue surrounding the left kidney and right atrophic kidney. A histopathological examination revealed inflammation and fibrosis with rich IgG4-positive cells in the thickened kidney capsule, but not in the kidney parenchyma. Poor enhancement in the left kidney on contrast-enhanced CT and wrinkling of glomerular capillaries in pathological tissues were also observed. These findings indicated IgG4-related perirenal lesions leading to low renal perfusion and kidney failure. The perirenal lesions and kidney failure were improved by corticosteroid therapy.
A 65-year-old man with valvular disorder presented to his physician because of widespread purpura in both lower extremities. Blood tests showed elevated serum creatinine levels and proteinase 3-anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) with hematuria, suggesting ANCA-related rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN). Although multiple blood cultures were negative, transthoracic echocardiography revealed warts in the valves, and a renal biopsy also showed findings of glomerular infiltration by mononuclear leukocytes and C3 deposition in the glomeruli, suggesting infection-related glomerulonephritis. Later, Bartonella antibody turned positive. Antimicrobial treatment improved the purpura and renal function without any recurrence. ANCA-positive RPGN requires the exclusion of infective endocarditis, especially that induced by Bartonella spp.
A 72-year-old man presented with back pain due to a mass in the left posterior mediastinum that had surrounded and partly infiltrated the descending aorta. Mediastinal undifferentiated sarcoma was diagnosed. After the diagnosis, sudden anuria was observed. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed an enhancement defect at the origins of the bilateral renal arteries. He received catheter-directed thrombolysis and was weaned off dialysis. The aspirated artery thrombus contained tumor cells, proving our diagnosis of acute kidney injury secondary to bilateral renal artery tumor embolism. In cancer patients, endovascular intervention may be a useful diagnostic and therapeutic option in cases of acute kidney injury secondary caused by peripheral thromboembolic complications.
We herein report a case of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) associated with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) in a 47-year-old man. The patient exhibited recurring dyspnea and bloody sputum. Chest radiography showed bilateral diffuse infiltrative opacities without pleural effusion. A bronchoscopic analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid revealed hemosiderin-laden macrophages. Based on these findings, he was diagnosed with DAH. Laboratory and pathological findings ruled out the possibility of collagen diseases and vasculitis. Overnight polysomnography revealed concomitant severe obstructive SAS. Treatment with continuous positive-pressure ventilation and pharmacological therapy for DCM prevented recurrence of DAH.
We herein report a case of presumed septic shock due to Actinotignum schaalii bacteremia with urinary tract infection. A 65-year-old Japanese man suffering from a fever was diagnosed with septic shock due to urinary tract infection. A urine sample was additionally incubated under 5% CO2 and anaerobic conditions after A. schaalii was identified in a blood culture, but A. schaalii was not detected in the urine culture. If Gram-positive rods are observed on Gram staining of a urine sample in symptomatic patients with a predisposing urogenital condition, 5% CO2 and an anaerobic culture of a urine sample should be performed immediately.
A 31-year-old woman who was clinically diagnosed with Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS) in childhood was admitted with complaints of dyspnea. She had hypercapnic respiratory failure accompanied by nocturnal hypoventilation. Computed tomography revealed systemic muscle atrophy and superior mesenteric artery syndrome; however, the bilateral lung fields were normal. She was treated with nocturnal noninvasive positive pressure ventilation and showed improvement of respiratory failure. In this case, loss of methylation on chromosome 11p15 and maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 7, which are the common causes of SRS, were not detected. This is a rare case of adult SRS manifesting as chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure.
Kabuki syndrome is characterized by multiple systemic anomalies and intellectual disability. It is complicated with immunodeficiencies and autoimmune disorders. The syndrome is caused by a mutation in the KMT2D gene. We herein report a case of a Kabuki syndrome with developing immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) and progressive splenomegaly. Laparoscopic splenectomy was performed and the patients' symptoms quickly disappeared with platelet recovery. After this operation, the patient had no severe complications. A sequence analysis of the KMT2D gene identified a pathogenic mutation frequently associated with ITP. Laparoscopic splenectomy is therefore considered to be a good therapeutic option for recurrent ITP and symptomatic splenomegaly with Kabuki syndrome.
A 23-year-old woman was admitted for slowly progressive proximal limb muscle weakness from childhood with elevated muscle enzyme levels. Although muscular diseases were suspected, an electromyogram showed remarkable neurogenic changes, and a muscle echogram indicated selective muscle involvement, including dissociation between the soleus and gastrocnemius, which was consistent with previous reports using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). She was diagnosed with SMA type 3 following genetic testing, and nusinersen was soon initiated. An early diagnosis is mandatory to maximize the benefit of treatment. A muscle echogram may facilitate an early diagnosis in a non-invasive and time-saving manner compared to MRI.
Due to its rarity and the limited literature, the clinicopathological characteristics of peripheral nerve involvement in immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease are unknown. We present two cases of IgG4-related disease, accompanied by peripheral neuropathy, presenting as unilateral ptosis (case 1) and sclerosing cholangitis (case 2), respectively. In both cases, sural nerve biopsy indicated vasculitis as the underlying pathophysiology; the peripheral neuropathy was refractory to corticosteroid therapy. In contrast to the previously proposed pathomechanism of IgG4-related neuropathy (direct lymphoplasmacytic infiltration), the pathological findings in our cases suggest that vasculitis occurs secondary to systemic autoimmune conditions.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) due to a fused in sarcoma (FUS) P525L mutation is characterized by a rapidly progressive course. Multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) may resemble ALS in early stage and is associated with anti-ganglioside antibodies. A 38-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of progressive muscle weakness in the right limbs. She had mild mental retardation and minor deformities. Initially, we suspected MMN given the asymmetric muscle weakness and detection of anti-ganglioside antibodies. However, physical and electrophysiological tests did not support MMN, instead suggesting ALS. We confirmed a heterozygous P525L mutation and finally diagnosed this case as ALS due to an FUS mutation.
We herein report the case of 21-year-old female diagnosed with adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) three years earlier who presented with fever and right upper abdominal pain. She was diagnosed with acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) based on hepatic dysfunction, elevated C-reactive protein, and gallbladder wall thickening on abdominal ultrasound. Based on the presence of pancytopenia, hyperferritinemia, and hemophagocytosis by a bone marrow examination, she was diagnosed with macrophage activation syndrome (MAS)/hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) which was refractory to glucocorticoid pulse therapy. The combination of intravenous cyclosporine A with glucocorticoids was able to successfully control the disease activity of AOSD-related AAC and MAS/HLH.
The first case of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) simultaneously demonstrating various clinical manifestations, including retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF) causing hydronephrosis and membranous nephropathy (MN) leading to nephrotic syndrome, is presented. There have been no previous case reports demonstrating the simultaneous onset of these three disease categories with significant complex pathologies. This case was successfully managed by providing adequate combination therapies according to each disease category, leading to complete remission (CR) of all three diseases. In conclusion, we believe this case is extremely rare and clinically suggestive, and that these findings can be applied to a future phenotype-tailored treatment strategy for EGPA.
Measles encephalitis rarely affects young adults and has no established treatment strategy. This brief report described the rare case of an immunocompetent 30-year-old man with severe measles pneumonia and encephalitis, following the autoimmune disease acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, during a large measles outbreak in 2018 in Japan. With multidisciplinary treatments, including corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulins, vitamin A, and therapeutic plasma exchange, the patient was successfully treated. This case provides a new strategy for treating measles encephalitis and its complications during measles outbreak.
Nasogastric tube syndrome (NGTS) is a rare but life-threatening complication associated with nasogastric tube (NGT) placement. The effect of the NGT size and type on the development of NGTS has not yet been fully elucidated. We herein report the case of a 77-year-old man with cerebral infarction who was complicated with NGTS. The immediate removal of the NGT improved the symptoms of NGTS. Although the NGT was passed through the same route during reinsertion, the use of a softer and smaller-sized NGT did not cause any NGTS recurrence. To prevent the development of NGTS, using a NGT that is appropriate for the patient's condition is important.