Internal Medicine
Online ISSN : 1349-7235
Print ISSN : 0918-2918
ISSN-L : 0918-2918
最新号
選択された号の論文の32件中1~32を表示しています
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
  • Tamio Okimoto, Yukari Tsubata, Mika Nakao, Takamasa Hotta, Megumi Hama ...
    2021 年 60 巻 18 号 p. 2879-2885
    発行日: 2021/09/15
    公開日: 2021/09/15
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/03/29
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス

    Objective In Japan, both medical oncologists and pulmonologists treat lung cancer patients; however, the difference in their attitude toward palliative care referral is unknown. Thus, we retrospectively investigated the difference in attitudes toward palliative care referral between medical oncologists and pulmonologists in Japan.

    Methods We retrospectively reviewed the charts of patients with thoracic malignancy who died at Shimane University Hospital between June 2011 and October 2015. We compared the patients' demographics and medical history according to their doctor's specialty (i.e., medical oncologist or pulmonologist).

    Results We identified 182 patients, among whom 90 were treated by medical oncologists and 56 by pulmonologists at the outpatient clinic. Thirty-six patients did not undergo outpatient clinic treatment. Out of 59 patients, 22 (37.3%) referred by medical oncologists, and 7 out of 36 patients (19.4%) referred by pulmonologists, were referred to palliative care specialists in the outpatient setting (p=0.107, Fisher's exact test). The median survival time after admission to PCU was 21 (95% CI: 13-32) and 9 (95% CI: 5-15) days among the patients treated by medical oncologists and pulmonologists, respectively (p=0.128).

    Conclusion Medical oncologists are more likely to refer their patients to palliative care in the outpatient setting, thus enabling patients to receive longer end of life care in the PCU. Bridging the research gap regarding differences between the physicians' attitudes toward palliative care referral may lead to patients receiving more quality palliative care.

  • Shota Okamoto, Hiroto Tsuboi, Hisashi Noma, Daiki Tabuchi, Toshiki Sug ...
    2021 年 60 巻 18 号 p. 2887-2897
    発行日: 2021/09/15
    公開日: 2021/09/15
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
    電子付録

    Objective To identify factors associated with pneumomediastinum during management of connective tissue disease (CTD)-related interstitial lung disease (ILD).

    Methods Patients diagnosed with pneumomediastinum after the initiation of corticosteroid therapy for their CTD-ILD were enrolled. The baseline characteristics of patients who developed pneumomediastinum after the initiation of corticosteroid therapy (n=13, all occurring within 120 days) were compared to those of patients who did not develop pneumomediastinum (n=49). A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with pneumomediastinum. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was also performed to assess the predictive performance.

    Results The body mass index (BMI) [odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI)) 0.482 (0.272-0.853)] and serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) [OR (95% CI) 1.013 (1-1.025)] levels at baseline were identified as independent factors associated with pneumomediastinum after corticosteroid initiation. The optimal cut-off points of the BMI and LDH levels for predicting pneumomediastinum development, as estimated by the Youden index, were 20.2 kg/m2 and 378 U/L, respectively. LDH showed a sensitivity of 61.5% and the highest specificity of 87.8%. Importantly, combining these markers resulted in the highest sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 71.4%.

    Conclusion A low BMI and high serum LDH levels at baseline are useful predictive factors for pneumomediastinum development in CTD-ILD patients.

  • Nobuhiro Matsumoto, Hironobu Tsubouchi, Kensuke Setoguchi, Takanori Ho ...
    2021 年 60 巻 18 号 p. 2899-2903
    発行日: 2021/09/15
    公開日: 2021/09/15
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/04/05
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス

    Objective Visceral larva migrans (VLM) caused by Ascaris suum is a major health problem in pig farming regions. The clinical characteristics of pulmonary VLM caused by A. suum, however, are unclear. We assessed the clinico-radiologic features of this disease.

    Methods Medical records, including the results of chest radiography and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), were retrospectively reviewed from January 2000 through June 2019, at the University of Miyazaki Hospital and Kyoritsuiin Hospital in Miyazaki Prefecture, Japan.

    Results Seven patients with VLM caused by A. suum were identified. All seven patients had a unique habit of consuming raw foods, such as organic vegetables, chicken, turkey, wild boar, and venison. All but one patient, who had eosinophilic pneumonia with a fever and severe fatigue, had only mild or no respiratory symptoms. All 7 patients had remarkable eosinophilia (median, 1,960/μL) and high serum IgE levels (median, 1,346 IU/mL). Chest HRCT revealed multiple nodules and multiple nodular ground-glass opacities in 57% and 29% of the patients, respectively. The pulmonary lesions were located predominantly in subpleural areas. All seven patients were treated with albendazole, which led to improvement within two to three months. Neither eggs nor parasites were detected in the feces or sputum of any patient.

    Conclusion Consumption of raw organic vegetables or raw meat is a possible route of A. suum infection. Infected patients exhibit mild respiratory symptoms, and multiple nodules with a halo in the subpleural area are a common finding on chest HRCT. Treatment with albendazole was effective in these cases.

  • Tetsuya Akaishi, Shigeki Kushimoto, Yukio Katori, Shigeo Kure, Kaoru I ...
    2021 年 60 巻 18 号 p. 2905-2910
    発行日: 2021/09/15
    公開日: 2021/09/15
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/07/10
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス

    Objective Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), remains the world's largest public health concern in 2021. A history of close contact with infectious patients is a factor that predicts a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result. Meanwhile, the precise predictive value of symptoms suggestive of COVID-19 has not been fully elucidated. This study aimed to clarify the predictive and discriminatory value of each clinical symptom suggestive of COVID-19.

    Methods This study enrolled participants who were tested for SARS-CoV-2 by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction using a nasopharyngeal swab between November 2020 and January 2021. All enrolled patients were evaluated for data regarding the presence and closeness of contact with infectious patients and comprehensive clinical features (i.e., fever, cough, dyspnea, fatigue, dysosmia, and dysgeusia).

    Results Among the 1,744 tested participants, 144 tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. In the test-positive group, self-reported cough, fatigue, dysosmia, and dysgeusia were significant predictors of COVID-19, independent from a history of close contact. In particular, the presence of dysosmia was the strongest predictor of COVID-19 in both univariate and multivariate analyses. Among the 42 patients with self-reported dysosmia, 25 (59.5%) were SARS-CoV-2 test-positive. Self-reported dysosmia was reported by 25 (17.4%) of the 144 patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, and 15 (60.0%) of the 25 COVID-19 patients with dysosmia had accompanying dysgeusia.

    Conclusion The presence of dysosmia was reported by 10-25% of patients with COVID-19, and is a significant predictor of COVID-19 infection, independent from a history of close contact.

  • Hisashi Sasaki, Shuichi Kawano, Shinichiro Ota, Hiroaki Taniguchi, Tat ...
    2021 年 60 巻 18 号 p. 2911-2917
    発行日: 2021/09/15
    公開日: 2021/09/15
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/07/17
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス

    Objective Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 has spread globally, and it is important to utilize medical resources properly, especially in critically ill patients. We investigated the validity of chest radiography as a tool for predicting aggravation in coronavirus disease (COVID-19) cases.

    Methods A total of 104 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases were referred from the cruise ship "Diamond Princess" to the Self-Defense Forces Central Hospital in Japan from February 11 to 25, 2020. Fifty-nine symptomatic patients were selected. Chest radiography was performed upon hospitalization; subsequently, patients were categorized into the positive radiograph (Group A) and negative radiograph (Group B) groups. Radiographic findings were analyzed with a six-point semiquantitative score. Group A was further classified into two additional subgroups: patients who required oxygen therapy during their clinical courses (Group C) and patients who did not (Group D). Clinical records, laboratory data, and radiological findings were collected for an analysis.

    Results Among 59 patients, 34 were men with a median age of 60 years old. Groups A, B, C, and D consisted of 33, 26, 12, and 21 patients, respectively. The number of patients requiring oxygen administration was significantly larger in Group A than in Group B. The consolidation score on chest radiographs was significantly higher in Group C than in Group D. When chest radiographs showed consolidation in more than two lung fields, the positive likelihood ratio of deterioration was 10.6.

    Conclusions Chest radiography is a simple and easy-to-use clinic-level triage tool for predicting the severity of COVID-19 and may contribute to the allocation of medical resources.

  • Takashi Watari
    2021 年 60 巻 18 号 p. 2919-2925
    発行日: 2021/09/15
    公開日: 2021/09/15
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/03/29
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス

    Objectives Medical litigation resulting from diagnostic errors leads to lawsuits that are time-consuming, expensive, and psychologically burdensome. Few studies have focused on internists, who are more likely to make diagnostic errors than others, with assessments of litigation in terms of system and diagnostic errors. This study explored factors contributing to internists losing lawsuits and examined whether system or diagnostic errors were more important on the outcome.

    Methods Data regarding 419 lawsuits against internists closed between 1961 and 2017 were extracted from a public Japanese database. Factors affecting litigation outcomes were identified by comparative analysis focusing on system and diagnostic errors, environmental factors, and differences in initial diagnoses.

    Results Overall, 419 malpractice claims against internists were analyzed. The rate of lawsuits being decided against internists was high (50.1%). The primary cause of litigation was diagnostic errors (213, 54%), followed by system errors (188, 45%). The foremost initial diagnostic error was "no abnormality" (17.2%) followed by ischemic heart disease (9.6%) and malignant neoplasm (8.1%). Following cause-adjustment for loss, system errors were 21.37 times more likely to lead to a loss. Losses were 6.26 times higher for diagnostic error cases, 2.49 times higher for errors occurring at night, and 3.44 times higher when "malignant neoplasm" was the first diagnosis.

    Conclusions This study found that system errors strongly contributed to internists' losses. Diagnostic errors, night shifts, and initial diagnoses of malignant neoplasms also significantly affected trial outcomes. Administrators must focus on both system errors and diagnostic errors to enhance the safety of patients and reduce internists' risk exposure.

  • Tomohiro F. Nishijima, Yasushi Toh, Masahito Tanimizu, Hitoshi Nakagam ...
    2021 年 60 巻 18 号 p. 2927-2932
    発行日: 2021/09/15
    公開日: 2021/09/15
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/03/29
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス

    Objective Geriatric screening followed by a more detailed assessment and intervention is recommended for older adults with cancer. However, little is known regarding how the geriatric screening covered by Japanese health insurance is used for hospitalized older cancer patients. We surveyed all hospitals in Japanese Association of Clinical Cancer Centers (JACCC) to explore the current use of this approach.

    Methods The JACCC member hospitals specialize in cancer care from prevention, through diagnosis and treatment, to palliative care. We mailed paper questionnaires to the presidents of the hospitals in December 2019 and collected them by February 2020. The survey requested general hospital information and asked whether (and how) such geriatric screening for hospitalized older adults with cancer was conducted.

    Results Twenty-six of 32 hospitals completed the survey (81%). Fourteen hospitals are cancer centers, while the remaining 12 hospitals are general hospitals which care of both cancer and non-cancer patients. Eleven hospitals (42%) performed geriatric screening and the most common use of the results was for "early discharge planning" and for "applying for long-term care insurance." Most clinicians rated the screening "somewhat" or "a little" helpful and found it most helpful for "meeting patient-post discharge needs". The most frequently reported barrier to implementation was a "lack of leadership to improve the care of older adults."

    Conclusion Geriatric screening was used at less than half of the major cancer centers and hospitals in Japan. One feasible solution to this problem is to establish an interprofessional workgroup at each hospital with the shared goal of providing high-quality care for this population.

  • Manabu Izumi, Kazuo Suzuki
    2021 年 60 巻 18 号 p. 2933-2938
    発行日: 2021/09/15
    公開日: 2021/09/15
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/03/29
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス

    Objective It has been established that stroke occurrence is influenced by seasonality. Stroke is divided into three subtypes: cerebral hemorrhage (CH), cerebral infarction (CI), and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The purpose of this paper was to analyze stroke events by subtype and month, in order to clarify the biggest factors that affect seasonal differences and thereby gain insight into stroke prevention.

    Methods Initial stroke events in the Akita Stroke Registry from 1991 to 2010 (58,684 cases; male 30,549, female 28,135) were classified by subtype and the month of onset, and correlations were estimated based on 115 healthy volunteers' monthly mean resting blood pressure (BP) at home and outdoor temperature measured by the Akita Meteorological Observatory in 2001.

    Results Systolic BP showed monthly variation in both morning and evening measurements. BP and outdoor temperature showed significant correlations with hemorrhagic stroke events by month (CH: r=0.87, r=-0.82; SAH: r=0.68, r=-0.82). Among the stroke subtypes, seasonal differences were the greatest in CH. Systolic BP was the most important factor for monthly and seasonal variation in stroke events. By comparing monthly BP variations with CH incidence throughout the year, we concluded that a decrease in home BP of 5 mmHg can reduce the risk of CH by 35%.

    Conclusion Our findings suggest that lowering BP would be the best strategy for CH prevention. Simple daily actions may be affected by cold stress. As physicians, we must strive to help patients lower their BP throughout the year not only with medication but with lifestyle guidance, especially in winter.

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