認知科学
Online ISSN : 1881-5995
Print ISSN : 1341-7924
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23 巻 , 3 号
認知科学
選択された号の論文の11件中1~11を表示しています
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特集―学校内外の学びをつなぐ
  • 白水 始, 岡部 大介, 益川 弘如, 伊藤 崇
    23 巻 (2016) 3 号 p. 197-200
    公開日: 2017/03/01
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 齊藤 萌木
    23 巻 (2016) 3 号 p. 201-220
    公開日: 2017/03/01
    ジャーナル フリー
     In order to clarify the nature and mechanism of socially constructive interaction, this
    paper presents an analysis of an Hypothesis-Experiment-Instruction (HEI) classroom
    discussion in which 21 third-graders collaboratively developed a rudimentary scientific
    concept of air. The lesson unit consisted of 11 problems whose answers were to be pre-
    dicted and discussed one at a time. The analysis focused on the 8th class discussion,
    which is seen to be most critical for the conceptual change of the children.
    The author adopted two analytic perspectives: the framework theory perspective
    and the knowledge-in-piece perspective. From the framework theory perspective, each
    child’s model was unique. The diversity of the explanatory model in the class was main-
    tained in the entire discussion. From the knowledge-in-piece perspective, every child
    actively engaged in the discussion, integrating various knowledge pieces into his/her
    model. Role change between task-doing and monitoring in a collaborative situation
    basically led children to elaborate their models. Particular type of monitoring aroused
    in the classroom played an interesting role in constructing a newer model.
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  • 石黒 千晶, 岡田 猛
    23 巻 (2016) 3 号 p. 221-236
    公開日: 2017/03/01
    ジャーナル フリー
     Individuals with creative literacy are acknowledged to play important roles in the
    development of a creative society. This article reports design-based research into an
    artistic photography course aimed at enabling undergraduates to acquire creative lit-
    eracy. The photography course, taught by a professional photographer, included the
    following activities: lectures teaching the theory and practice of photography; appreci-
    ation and imitation of acclaimed artistic photographs; reflection by the participants on
    their own photo taking through diary writing; and an artwork exhibition in the class-
    room. Twenty-one undergraduates participated in this course and acquired knowledge
    of artistic photography. Interviews conducted one year after the end of the course re-
    veal that the number of students who practiced photography increased after the course.
    They reported that they had benefitted from the hands-on experience of photo taking,
    from acquiring knowledge and skills of photography, and from inspiration by artworks
    encountered on the photography course.
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  • 益川 弘如, 河﨑 美保, 白水 始
    23 巻 (2016) 3 号 p. 237-254
    公開日: 2017/03/01
    ジャーナル フリー
     This study examined whether collaborative problem solving (CPS) skills can be de-
    veloped in school through knowledge creation. We collected dialogue data from four
    lessons and analyzed how children engage in dialogue. The study subjects were children
    who had taken classes with a working-backward approach until the third grade and then
    lessons with a working-forward approach from the fourth-grade until graduation. The
    longitudinal dialogue data were analyzed in three ways. First, each utterance was coded
    as “team-coordination”or “contents-oriented.”Second, we counted the number of cy-
    cling processes between understanding and non-understanding based on the framework
    of constructive interaction. Finally, we examined the level of understanding based on
    the model of social construction of knowledge and understanding. The results suggested
    that the children developed their CPS skills through the lessons with a working-forward
    approach. This was supported by a cross-sectional study, wherein children were asked
    to solve a problem in pairs. The targeted school outperformed other schools with re-
    gard to the likelihood of constructive interaction. These longitudinal and cross-sectional
    analyses suggest that the frequency of constructive interaction could be an indicator of
    CPS skills. This study finally discussed the possibility that accumulative experience of
    knowledge creation through constructive interaction in lessons could develop children’s
    CPS skills.
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  • 渡辺 謙仁, 田邉 鉄
    23 巻 (2016) 3 号 p. 255-269
    公開日: 2017/03/01
    ジャーナル フリー
     The purpose of this paper is exploring potential for new learning through an ethno-
    graphic study in a nanosatellite-developing project generated from among “Nico-
    TECH:.”“Nico-TECH:”is a makers’community spreading like wildfire mainly medi-
    ated by NiconicoVideos. “Nico-TECH:”has no institutional organization. It is “ Social
    Media Satellite Development Project”(SOMESAT) which is the project for developing
    a nanosatellite on which “Hachune Miku”(Hatsune Miku) does performance in the
    space.
      From the result of the ethnographic study, SOMESAT was able to be taken as a goal-
    oriented project, and also a zone of human development such as a distributed, mobile
    and multidirectional pulsation. Activities which realized such a human development
    were partially mediated by architecture of NiconicoVideos to stimulate emergence of
    contents and ideas, and by a boundary crossing body of Hatsune Miku’s character.
    This paper must show potential for new learning and give some kind of suggestions
    about school education in the future.
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  • 飯窪 真也
    23 巻 (2016) 3 号 p. 270-284
    公開日: 2017/03/01
    ジャーナル フリー
     This article describes the design and development of a system for sustainable inno-
    vation to foster an attitude of “learning forward”in teachers towards the discovery of
    new goals.Focusing on analysis of the collaborative research project being jointly im-
    plemented by the Consortium of Renovating Education for the Future (CoREF) of the
    University of Tokyo and the regional boards of education in the manner of design-based
    implementation research, the author analyzed two components of the project: 1) the
    existence of a shared concrete framework of practices and tools for reflection, and 2) a
    holistic structure consisting of tools and learning events, in order to test a hypothesis
    that those two components help teachers bridge the new framework and daily practices
    and change their concept of teaching and learning.The project has since evolved to
    share a concrete framework in the form of the “Knowledge Constructive Jigsaw method”
    with networks consisting of teachers, researchers and educational leaders working to-
    gether to design, practice and reflect lessons across subjects, schools and districts.In
    the process of analyzing the past six years of the project, the author found that the
    main focus of the project had changed from developing shared teaching materials to
    helping teachers mutually change their concept of teaching and learning and fostering
    their capacity to sustainably improve their daily practices. The change occurred as a
    consequence of scaling up the project and followed a redesign of the framework, tools
    and system itself.
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  • 土倉 英志
    23 巻 (2016) 3 号 p. 285-296
    公開日: 2017/03/01
    ジャーナル フリー
     In this paper, I studied college students’learning. They worked on “science cafe”
    projects, and successfully executed those projects. Science cafe is a type of workshop.
    I analyzed the following three research questions about their learning. First, did they
    learn about the theme termed “offstage interests”? Second, what features characterize
    “offstage interests”? Third, how did they learn about “offstage interests”?
     To elucidate these research questions, I collected data through interviews of college
    students, after science cafe activities for one year had been completed. The interviews
    were combined with the interviewees’reflections on these activities.
     By analyzing the data, I clarified the following three points. First, the college students
    learned about the theme termed “offstage interests.”Their learning about “offstage in
    terests”implies that they have become interested in others’offstage activities, such
    as concerts. The offstage activities are out-of-sight from the onstage activities that
    they appreciate or in which they participate. Second, their learning about “offstage
    interests”comprises taking a keen interest in, and empathizing with, others’offstage
    activities. Third, fostering learning about “offstage interests”requires two aspects: 1)
    undertaking various roles in the science cafes’activities, and 2) creating a framework
    of activities from scratch. Finally, I considered relationships among learning about
    “offstage interests,”knotworking, and active learning.
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