In the previous study we reported that decreases in concentrations of phosphatidylglycerol, pulmonary surfactant protein A (SP-A), and pulmonary surfactant protein D (SP-D) in BALF of horses after transportation indicated a reduction in the quantity of surfactant in the lungs. However, it is unknown whether SP-A concentrations in sera change during transportation. The purpose of the study reported here was to develop a sandwich Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) for detection of SP-A in serum of horses and determine whether serum SP-A concentrations change during transportation of horses. The optimal concentration of Triton X-100 was determined by testing various concentrations of Triton X-100 with a sandwich ELISA. Analytical recovery and precision were assayed. Twenty Thoroughbreds were transported by road for 41 hr and five control horses were not transported to determine the effect of transportation on serum SP-A concentration. A combination of solid-phase TA08 and HRP-conjugated WA28 was found to be more sensitive than the other combinations. Maximum values for SP-A in the serum samples were obtained when 3% (v/v) Triton X-100 incubated at a reaction temperature of 37°C were used. This concentration of Triton X-100 and 37°C were used in subsequent assays. The changes of SP-A in sera during transportation had relationships to the condition of horses. Determination of SP-A concentrations by use of the ELISA developed in this study may be useful for the identification of lung conditions or to monitor the progression of lung disease in horses.
This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of bithionol paste products against tapeworms in horses in field and critical trials. Eighty-seven horses naturally infected with tapeworms detected by fecal examination were divided into three groups. Thirty horses were given a single dosage of bithionol at 5 mg/kg directly into their mouths, and 51 horses at 10 mg/kg. Fecal examinations were carried out on day 14 after the treatment. Eighty-seven percent of the horses treated with 5 mg/kg of bithionol and 100% of the horses treated with 10 mg/kg were negative for tapeworm eggs in their feces. Two horses from each of the treated groups were necropsied on day 14 after the treatment. There were no tapeworms detected in their gastrointestines. Tapeworms in the feces excreted from the treated horses were morphologically identified as Anoplocephala perfoliata. Thirteen percent of horses in the 5 mg/kg group and 20% in the 10 mg/kg group excreted loose or diarrheal feces for 2 days after the treatment. No other clinical signs were observed in the horses in either group. Meanwhile, six horses in the control group were positive in fecal examination on the same day (day 14). In one of them were found 27 A. perfoliata when it was necropsied on that day. These results showed that bithionol paste products, when administered at the rate of 10 mg/kg of bithionol, satisfactorily deworm A. perfoliata in horses.