While intrauterine fluid (IUF) is observed as mucous in healthy mares during estrus, the presence of IUF during diestrus is an indicator of endometritis. Mating induces endometrial inflammation in healthy mares, called mating-induced endometritis, that disappears within 1–2 days after mating. On the other hand, it is also known that IUF remaining beyond 12 hr after mating can cause persistent inflammation, bacterial growth, and decreased fertility. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the presence of IUF and cervical bacteria before and after mating. Mares were classified into three groups based on the degree of IUF: Grade 1 (G1), neither IUF nor echogenic lines at the inner lining of the uterus; Grade 2 (G2), small amount of IUF (<0.5 cm in diameter) or an echogenic lines in the intrauterine cavity; and Grade 3 (G3), obvious IUF (≥0.5 cm in diameter). The positive culture rates of G1, G2, and G3 mares before mating were 15.8% (n=6/38), 25.9% (n=7/27), and 31.8% (n=14/44), respectively, and did not differ significantly between the groups. After mating, the positive culture rates of G1, G2, and G3 mares were 18.2% (n=2/11), 56.1% (n=23/41), and 72.3% (n=34/47), respectively. The positive culture rates were significantly higher in G2 (P<0.05) and G3 (P<0.01) mares compared with G1 mares. These results from after mating suggest that not only mares with obvious IUF but also those with a small amount of IUF (<0.5 cm in diameter) or echogenic lines in the intrauterine cavity are at risk of mating-induced endometritis.
There have been few reports about temporohyoid osteoarthropathy in Japanese horses. The aim of this study was to describe the symptoms and management of temporohyoid osteoarthropathy and to investigate its association with crib-biting behavior, which is commonly observed in Japanese horses. The data concerning case details, signs, diagnosis procedures, treatment, and outcomes were collected retrospectively from the medical records of 11 Thoroughbreds with temporohyoid osteoarthropathy. The trainers and owners were asked whether the horses had displayed crib-biting behavior. Nine of the horses were diagnosed by guttural pouch endoscopy, and two were diagnosed by skull radiography. Eight horses were treated medically, of which three (37%) showed improvement; the other three horses underwent ceratohyoidectomy, with two (67%) showing improvement. Crib-biting behavior was observed in eight (73%) of the horses. A comparison of data regarding crib-biting behavior among 437 Thoroughbreds from six local riding schools indicated a significant association between temporohyoid osteoarthropathy and crib-biting behavior: the odds ratio for a horse with temporohyoid osteoarthropathy to exhibit crib-biting behavior compared with the general population was 12 (95% confidence interval, 3–45), and horses exhibiting crib-biting behavior were significantly more likely to have temporohyoid osteoarthropathy (P<0.001, Fisher’s exact test). This suggested that crib-biting behavior may be a risk factor for temporohyoid osteoarthropathy.
Measurements of gas exchange while breathing gases of different O2 concentrations are useful in respiratory and exercise physiology. High bias flows required in flow-through indirect calorimetry systems for large animals like exercising horses necessitate the use of inconveniently large reservoirs of mixed gases for making such measurements and can limit the amount of equilibration time that is adequate for steady-state measurements. We obviated the need to use a pre-mixed reservoir of gas in a semi-open flow-through indirect calorimeter by dynamically mixing gases and verified the theoretical accuracy and utility of making such measurements using the mass-balance N2-dilution method. We evaluated the accuracy of the technique at different inspired oxygen fractions by measuring exercising oxygen consumption (VO2) at two fully aerobic submaximal exercise intensities in Thoroughbred horses. Horses exercised at 24% and 50% maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 max) of each horse while breathing different O2 concentrations (19.5%, 21% and 25% O2). The N2-dilution technique was used to calculate VO2. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used to tested for differences in VO2 between different inspired O2 concentrations. The specific VO2 of the horses trotting at 24%VO2max and cantering at 50%VO2max were not significantly different among the three different inspired oxygen fractions. These findings demonstrate that reliable measurements of VO2 can be obtained at various inspired oxygen fractions using dynamic gas mixing and the N2-dilution technique to calibrate semi-open-circuit gas flow systems.
Thoroughbred racehorses are commonly affected with superficial digital flexor (SDF) tendinopathy. This study aimed to identify risk factors for SDF tendinopathy in racing horses. The authors selected racehorses (n=292) with SDF tendinopathy from the medical records of a racetrack. As a risk factor associated with track-related variables, the SDF tendinopathy odds ratio (OR) was significantly high for a sloppy track surface compared with a standard track surface. Regarding risk factors associated with race-related variables, the SDF tendinopathy OR was significantly high in the following cases: when the order of arrival was worse than or equal to the 10th place; when the racehorses started to run a short race and when the racehorses’ favourites were worse than or equal to the 8th place. Regarding risk factors associated with racehorse-related variables, the body weight of racehorses with SDF tendinopathy was significantly heavier than that of control horses. When there was a decrease in body weight since previous racing, the SDF tendinopathy OR was significantly high. Regarding risk factors associated with race career-related variables, when the charge in the race distance was short, the SDF tendinopathy OR was significantly high. As a countermeasure to prevent SDF tendinopathy, a sloppy track surface should be avoided during the race by guiding the horse toward to more solid track surface. Selecting long-distance races with slow speed, if possible, could reduce the risk of SDF tendinopathy.
This report describes surgical management and breeding implications of a case of penile sarcoid associated with penis laceration in a 4-year-old Kurdish stallion. A large fleshy mass on the distal end of the penis that resulted in urethral meatus deviation and dysuria was detected in a physical examination. No evidence of local extent or metastasis was detected. Under general anaesthesia, the involved distal portion of the penis was removed through partial phallectomy. Histopathological examination of the mass confirmed a fibroblastic sarcoid. Partial phallectomy was successful for management of penile sarcoid and resulted in no postoperative complications or tumour recurrence in long-term follow up; however, successful ejaculation and semen collection have not been achieved.
We report a study that examined the effect and safety of salacinol from Salacia reticulata extract (SRE) for the intestinal microbiota of horses. We administered SRE to healthy horses and evaluated their intestinal microbiota before and after the test period for changes in composition. Horses that received the SRE showed notable differences in intestinal microbiota composition between before and after administration, with a substantial increase in bacteria of the order Lactobacillales at the end of the test period. Moreover, the Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes ratio was elevated. Salacinol was administered as a supplement for 28 days. Physiological and blood tests were conducted in the presence of a veterinarian, and a safety assessment was performed. These evaluations revealed no detrimental findings.