Supramaximal exercise while inspiring different O2 gases may induce different responses in cardiopulmonary function at the same relative and/or absolute exercise intensity. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of supramaximal exercise in hypoxia, normoxia and hyperoxia on cardiopulmonary function in Thoroughbred horses. Using a crossover design, five well-trained horses were made to run up a 6% grade on a treadmill at supramaximal speeds sustainable for approximately 110 sec (approximately 115% VO2max) while breathing normoxic gas (NO, 21% O2) or hypoxic gas (LO, 15.3% O2) in random order. Horses also ran at the same speed, incline and run time as in NO while breathing hyperoxic gas (HONO, 28.8% O2) and as in LO while breathing normoxic gas (NOLO). Runs were on different days, and cardiopulmonary variables were analyzed with repeated-measures ANOVA and the Holm-Šidák method for pairwise comparisons. Supramaximal speeds differed significantly between NO and LO (14.0 ± 0.5 [SD] m/sec vs. 12.6 ± 0.5 m/sec), but run times to exhaustion did not (112 ± 17 sec vs. 103 ± 14 sec). The VO2max in NO was higher than that in LO (165 ± 11 vs. 120 ± 15 ml (min× kg)), as was the arterial oxygen tension (66 ± 5 vs. 45 ± 2 Torr). Oxygen consumption was increased in HONO and NOLO compared with the values in NO and LO, respectively. Supramaximal exercise in hypoxia induces more severe hypoxemia and decreases VO2max compared with normoxia at the same relative intensity. Conversely, supramaximal exercise in hyperoxia alleviates hypoxemia and increases VO2 compared with normoxia at the same absolute intensity.
Gene doping is prohibited in horseracing and equestrian sports. In previous studies, we developed non-targeted transgene and genome editing detection methods based on whole genome resequencing (WGR) using genomic DNA extracted from whole blood. In this study, we aimed to develop a WGR method using DNA extracts from hair roots. Hair roots are a preferred substrate because their collection is less invasive than blood collection. Hair is also easier to store for long periods of time. Although almost all genomic DNA extracted from hair root samples stored for years at room temperature was degraded, the quality of genomic DNA from samples stored for years at refrigerated temperatures (4–8°C) was maintained. High-molecular-weight genomic DNA was isolated from hair roots using a magnetic silica beads method of extraction, enabling WGR from horsehair root extracts. Nucleotide sequencing results and numbers of single-nucleotide polymorphisms and insertions/deletions concurred with those previously reported for WGR of DNA extracted from whole blood. Therefore, we consider that storing hair samples at refrigerated temperatures prevents degradation of DNA, allowing the detection of gene doping in these samples based on WGR. It is likely this finding will also have a deterrent effect, as it is now possible to test horses with archived samples even if they or their parents are deceased. To our knowledge, this is the first report employing WGR on horsehair roots stored for a long term.
In this study, we investigated the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in commensal Escherichia coli isolated from healthy Thoroughbred (TB) racehorses in Japan. A total of 212 fecal samples were individually collected from TB racehorses from March 2017 to August 2018 at Japan Racing Association training centers. E. coli was isolated by using selective agar media, deoxycholate-hydrogen sulfide-lactose (DHL) and eosin methylene blue (EMB). A total of 417 E. coli isolates were examined against 10 antimicrobial agents by using the broth microdilution method. The 417 E. coli isolates were phylogenetically grouped using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction. The highest proportion of resistance was observed for streptomycin (30.9%, 129/417) followed by ampicillin (19.4%, 81/417), trimethoprim (15.8%, 66/417), tetracycline (8.4%, 35/417), chloramphenicol (2.6%, 11/417), kanamycin (1.2%, 5/417), nalidixic acid (0.5%, 2/417), cefazolin (0.2%, 1/417), colistin (0.2%, 1/417), and gentamycin (0%). Multidrug-resistant (MDR) E. coli was detected in 7.9% (33/417) of isolates. The proportions of resistance against ampicillin, streptomycin, kanamycin, and chloramphenicol and of multidrug-resistant phenotypes in E. coli belonging to phylogenetic group B2 were significantly higher than those of other groups. This study clarified the distribution of antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) E. coli in Japanese racehorses. A continuous monitoring program for antimicrobial resistance is required to control the spread of AMR bacteria in racehorses.
The Yonaguni pony is a rare breed of pony that has remained isolated on the westernmost island of Japan and may well retain normal morphological traits currently lost in most domestic horses (Equus caballus), such as the attachment of the nuchal ligament lamellae (NLL) from C2–C7. Recent research has found that NLL attachments are no longer present at C6 and C7 in most modern domesticated horses. This study investigated the attachments of the NLL in three Yonaguni ponies; 2 were examined in situ(deceased), and 1 was examined in vivo via ultrasound. The aim was to verify the attachments and compare the morphology to that in equids from previous studies. The in situ (2/2) and in vivo (1/1) findings revealed that the NLL was attached from C2–C7 in the Yonaguni ponies.
This report presents a case of uterine prolapse in a Thoroughbred mare. The uterine prolapse occurred after abortion of twins in the eighth month of gestation. The prolapsed uterus was bleeding and congested but not damaged. The placenta was still attached to the endometrium. Blood samples were collected for hematology and for estimation of calcium, progesterone and estrogen. The cervix and clitoris were swabbed for bacteriology. The mare showed a decrease in the number of lymphocytes. The concentrations of estrogen and progesterone seemed normal compared with mares that foaled. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated. The prolapsed uterus was washed with warm normal saline, and the retained placenta was carefully removed. An antibiotic cream was spread on the prolapsed uterus before replacing it. Two-thirds of the upper vulva was transiently sutured. Systemic antibiotics and an anti-inflammatory were administrated for 5 days. After 24 hr, the sutures were removed, and uterine lavage was performed using warmed normal saline for three days. The mare received 20 IU of oxytocin twice a day for three days to aid uterine clearance. A local antibiotic was inserted into the uterus. After treatment, the mare did not show any health disorders. She entered estrus 9 days after abortion and again 10 days later. In conclusion, twin pregnancy in a mare is considered a critical condition that necessitates specific management during early and late pregnancy. Uterine prolapse is an emergency that should be treated in a skilled manner to protect the mare and her future fertility. Calcium deficiency might predispose mares to uterine prolapse.
Jockey safety is of paramount importance from the standpoint of welfare and public perception. Thus, an understanding of the epidemiology and associated risk factors is necessary to implement measures to reduce the jockey falls (JFs) and jokey injuries (JIs). This descriptive epidemiological study investigated the occurrence of JFs and JIs in 715,210 and 25,183 rides in flat and jump races, respectively, from 2003 to 2017. In flat races, the incidence rates of JFs and JIs were 1.4 and 0.6 per 1,000 rides, respectively. In jump races, they were 44.4 and 18.1 per 1,000 rides, respectively. In flat races, 56.8% of JFs at corners resulted in JIs. In jump races, the major causes of JFs and JIs were lost balance and hampered by a fallen horse at an obstacle. Our findings provide a basis to design a future study analyzing risk factors for JFs.
This study optimized the double-spin conditions for preparing equine platelet-rich plasma (PRP): leukocyte-rich PRP (L-PRP) and leukocyte-poor PRP (P-PRP). Whole blood samples were centrifuged at various double-spin conditions. Both L-PRP and P-PRP were prepared at each stage, and complete blood counts and growth factor concentrations were compared. Samples centrifuged at 160 × 900 g, 160 × 2,000 g, and 400 × 2,000 g exhibited the highest platelet counts. P-PRP had significantly lower leukocyte and erythrocyte contents than L-PRP, especially at 400 × 2,000 g. No significant differences were observed in growth factor concentrations. Our data suggest that optimum L-PRP preparation should include centrifugation under the aforementioned conditions, whereas centrifugation at 400 × 2,000 g is optimal for P-PRP.