Leukemia, i.e., the neoplasia of one or more cell lines of the bone marrow, although less common than in other species, it is also reported in horses. Leukemia can be classified according to the affected cells (myeloproliferative or lymphoproliferative disorders), evolution of clinical signs (acute or chronic) and the presence or lack of abnormal cells in peripheral blood (leukemic, subleukemic and aleukemic leukemia). The main myeloproliferative disorders in horses are malignant histiocytosis and myeloid leukemia, the latter being classified as monocytic and myelomonocytic, granulocytic, primary erythrocytosis or polycythemia vera and megakaryocytic leukemia. The most common lymphoproliferative disorders in horses are lymphoid leukemia, plasma cell or multiple myeloma and lymphoma. Lymphoma is the most common hematopoietic neoplasia in horses and usually involves lymphoid organs, without leukemia, although bone marrow may be affected after metastasis. Lymphoma could be classified according to the organs involved and four main clinical categories have been established: generalized-multicentric, alimentary-gastrointestinal, mediastinal-thymic-thoracic and cutaneous. The clinical signs, hematological and clinical pathological findings, results of bone marrow aspirates, involvement of other organs, prognosis and treatment, if applicable, are presented for each type of neoplasia. This paper aims to provide a guide for equine practitioners when approaching to clinical cases with suspicion of hematopoietic neoplasia.
Although various combinations of parental coat colours can produce a Palomino foal, examination of records of the British Palomino Society suggest that many animals registered with the society resulted from matings which maximise the likelihood or even guarantee a Palomino foal. When show records were examined, it was clear that the colouration preferred by judges corresponds to that of the only pair-wise parental combination guaranteeing a Palomino foal.
In this study, we applied a novel psycho-educational horseback riding (PEHR) program to the treatment of four Japanese children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) in order to facilitate the acquisition of verbal and nonverbal communication skills. The behavioral changes in each child were evaluated using a psychological and behavioral scale. The scale for evaluating the effect of Human-Equips-Interaction on Mental activity (HEIM scale) was designed to assess the behavioral improvement of children based on the following 10 items: Human relationships, Imitation, Emotional expression, Sudden physical movement, Fixative behavior, Adaptation to change, Visual response, Fear or nervousness, and Verbal and nonverbal communication. After taking part in the PEHR program for several months, all subjects showed remarkably improved HEIM scores and marked improvements were observed in eye contact with others (instructors, side walkers, and leaders) in the riding area. A statistical difference was found in items 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, and 9. However, no statistical difference was found in items 4, 5, and 10. As the program progressed, the children showed enhanced verbal and nonverbal communication skills, and became more expressive in their emotional and empathetic interaction with their parents. These observations suggest that the normal functioning of pleasurable emotions and empathy may facilitate further improvements in joint attention, imitation and empathy, and may result in successful verbal expression by PDD children. Therefore, horseback riding can play a very important role in the psycho-educational support required for the communication ability of PDD children.