The nucleotide sequences of three open reading frames (ORFs), 1, 24 (partial) and 71, of an attenuated equine herpesvirus-1 strain, BK343, and its parent virulent strain HH1 were determined. In ORF1 of BK343, reiterated sequences of 299 bp were inserted and affected the reading frames of ORF1. The ORFs 24 and 71 of BK343 contained a different number of copies of repeat sequences, but this did not affect the reading frames of both ORFs. In addition, the ORF71 of BK343 had two point mutations, which affected the amino acid sequences.
Endoscopic, cytologic, bacteriologic and histologic examinations of the endometrium were performed on 34 subfertile Turkaman cross-bred mares to evaluate the significance of the hysteroscopic method and biopsy as a gyneacological evaluation. Fifty percent of the mares showed pathological changes on endoscopy, including adhesions, fluid accumulation, endometrial cysts and atrophy of the endometrial folds. Three, 23 and 8 cases classified as grades II A, II B and III, respectively, in biopsy samples base on the Kenney and Doig classification . Multiple endometrial cysts occurred in 12 mares (35.3%) and 2 of them were younger than 10 years. Most of the large lymphatic cysts were situated near the bifurcation of the uterine body. Adhesions were found only in one mare. Only 4 of the 17 cases in which endometritis was clearly diagnosed were identified by endoscopy, but none of the endometrial cysts or intraluminal adhesions which were identified by endoscopy were determined by uterine biopsy, cytology and culture. In view of the results of this experiment, it can be concluded that in diagnosing endometritis, biopsy, cytology and culture of the endometrium is more diagnostic than endoscopy, but in differentiating gross pathological changes in the uterus such as intrauterine adhesions and endometrial cysts, endoscopy is more efficient.
Bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm2) in the distal portion of the third metacarpal bone (McIII) of racehorses was measured by a dual energy x-ray absorptiometry system (DEXA; DCS-3000, ALOKA Co, Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) in vitro, and compared with bone mineral content (BMC, g/cm2) evaluated by a single photon absorptiometry system (SPA: Model 278 A, Norland Co., Fort Atkinson, U.S.A.; radioactive source was 241Am-45mCi). The BMD values measured by DEXA were positively correlated with the BMC values measured by SPA, which has been used to quantitatively assess BMC with high accuracy and reproducibility in racehorses, at 0.01-0.0001 level with a correlative coefficient (r) of 0.625-0.995 (n=30). The reproducibility of values measured by DEXA shows a satisfactory coefficient value (3%), almost same as that (2.7%) of SPA. These results suggest the potential applications of DEXA as a quantifying instrument for the measurement of bone mass of the McIII in racehorses.