Two experiments were carried out to determine the intake, digestibility and nutritive value of a bamboo grass (Sasa nipponica) in Hokkaido native horses. In experiment 1, three mature and three yearling horses were fed timothy (Phleum pratense L.) fresh-grass, timothy hay and fresh Sasa nipponica ad libitum in individual outdoor pens (2.5 × 7.2m). The fresh grass was aftermath and the hay was the first cutting hay. The Sasa nipponica consisted of current foliage and wintering foliage in the ratio of 4:1(Sasa-CW). In experiment 2, current Sasa nipponica foliage(Sasa-C) was offered to two mature horses according to a nutritive requirement of the NRC. The voluntary dry matter intake by experimental horses was more than 3.0% of their body weight in fresh grass, 2.1-3.0% of their body weight in grass hay and 1.0-1.7% of their body weight in Sasa nipponica. The digestibilities of DM in Sasa-CW and Sasa-C were 41.2 and 43.0%, respectively, which were lower than those of the fresh grass and the grass hay. The digestiblities of CP in Sasa-CW and Sasa-C were 77.1 and 74.4%, respectively, which were higher than in the grass hay and similar to the fresh grass. The TDN (%DM) and DE (Mcal/kgDM) were 41.0 and 2.00 in Sasa-CW, and 42.8 and 2.12 in Sasa-C, respectively. These values were lower than the fresh grass and similar to the grass hay. The DCP in Sasa-CW and Sasa-C were 12.2 and 13.2% DM, respectively, which were similar to the fresh grass but higher than the grass hay.
In this paper, as an indicator of designing of the equestrian jacket or coat, the exterior lateral view of the superior human body during representative riding positions including on the static horseback model with saddle were analysed by the film researching accompanied the dermagraph method and the fuse method. The selected subject was a Japanese adult woman of normal body size with riding experience. And, comparative study was made of the same posture and actions on the dressage saddle·racing saddle·side-saddle, and furthermore, standing on the floor and sitting on a stool. As a result, it was found that basically riding styles on the dressage saddle resembled the various standing positions and it was easy to assume including a natural lumbar lordosis but, in the forward seat position, degree of the lumbar lordosis decreased. Similarly, the positions in the racing saddle resembled that of sitting on a stool, and in the side-saddle the state between standing and sitting styles. Thus, it was ascertained that in designing equestrian costume, it was suggested that strong demands be made respectively for a follow-up mechanism to the extension of upper limbs and dorsal region for the jockey seat, furthermore for adaptation to the smoothly coping with the return to halt position for the jumping, and the adaptation to the gentle shape of the vertebral curve and right and left asymmetry shape for the side-saddle position, and the adaptation to the extension of the vertebral column (lordosis of the lumbar spine), the holding of forward lifting of the thorax and the refraining from excessive movement of the shoulder girdle for the dressage.
Transportation is generally recognized as a factor that raises the incidence of respiratory disorders in horses. However, their relationship to changes in respiratory function of horses during transportation have yet to be clarified in many respects. Furthermore, there is as yet no report concerning changes in arterial blood gas partial pressure and other parameters that reflect pulmonary ventilatory state in transported horses. In view of this, we conducted this study to clarify the relationship of transport with ventilatory function by investigating changes in respiratory pattern. Respiratory rate increased markedly as transport started (19.0±1.2/min.→42.4±8.2/min.), remained increased during the course of transport, and diminished close to a pre-transport level while at a stop. Arterial blood gases were not affected by respiratory rate, and did not reveal any significant change except a mild hyperventilatory state seen in febrile horses during transport.