The distribution and clinical lesion type of epizootic lymphangitis (EL) were investigated on 65 EL cases of cart-mules. Clinical, microscopic, histopathological, and mycological examinations were used. The proportion of cutaneous lesion was 92.3% (60/65) while only 4.6% (3/65), and 3.1% (2/65) had pulmonary and ocular lesions, respectively. The cutaneous lesions were characterized by suppurative multi-focal dermatitis and lymphangitis, which appeared as nodules or ulcers. The scrotal and axillary regions and the fore and hind legs were frequently involved while the neck and facial regions were less frequently involved. The pulmonary form was serious by causing dyspnoea, which lead to death. Unilateral ulcerating conjunctivitis with purulent ocular discharge was also observed. Hematoxylin-eosin stained histological section showed pyogranulomatous inflammation with fibroplasia. Therefore, once a mule is infected, the distribution and clinical lesion type of EL are with those in horses.
The following items were investigated to measure blood lactate in horses under field conditions using portable lactate analyzers recently developed for human athletes. 1) The precision of two types of portable lactate analyzer and the standard analyzer using the immobilized enzyme method, and correlation among the lactate concentrations measured by the three lactate analyzers. 2) The correlation between the lactate concentrations in peripheral blood collected by lancet puncture and jugular venous blood using Lactate-pro (L-pro). The study was performed in Thoroughbreds under training for races, using Accusport (AC) and L-pro as portable lactate analyzers and YSI1500 (YSI) for the standard analyzer using the immobilized enzyme method. The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation (CV) of L-pro was lower than AC at low and middle lactate concentrations. The precision of L-pro is better than AC when the blood lactate level is lower than 10 mmol/l, and hematocrit (Ht) is 57% or lower. The lactate concentration using L-pro in peripheral blood collected by lancet puncture through the neck skin was similar to the level in jugular venous blood. No infection or inflammatory symptom occurred after blood sampling and the examination is relatively safe. These findings suggest that blood lactate measurement using L-pro by lancet puncture through the neck skin under field conditions is simple and safe, requiring no blood sampling from the jugular vein, and it can be used for evaluation of aerobic capacity and intensity of exercise in daily submaximal training.
There are no reports about the amygdaloid complex in horses, cows and pigs. The amygdaloid complex is divided into many subnuclei from the point of histology, and the purpose of this study was to clarify its features by comparison among horses, cows and pigs. Using the Nissl staining method, we examined coronal serial sections of brains from the three species. The division of the amygdaloid subnuclei was performed on the magnified photos and three-dimensional analysis was also performed for the three species. The shape of the amygdala in the horse and cow was an anterior ellipsoid, long and slender in the dorso-ventral direction, posteriorly. In the pig, it was long and slender in the dorso-ventral direction as a whole. The volume of the amygdala in the horse as a percentage of cerebral volume was the biggest among the three species. We divided the amygdala into 27 subnuclei and these subnuclei were classified into 11 subnuclei groups. Features of some subnuclei resembled those of other species, such as rabbit, cat and monkey. Taking into consideration brain development, it was clear that the shapes of the subnuclei were fairly reflected by the brain development within the skull. From the results of three-dimensional analysis, the amygdala was mainly occupied by the lateral and basal nuclei, each occupying about 30% of the amygdala. Features of each species were that the relative size of the posterior cortical nucleus was high in the horse and cow, and the relative size of the amygdalohippocampal area was high in the pig. We concluded that the features of the subnuclei may be related to the functional development.
The objective of this study was to investigate the cellular immunolocalization of inhibin α and inhibin/activin (βA and βB) subunits and steroidogenic enzymes in neonatal equine ovaries. The ovaries were obtained from two equine neonates of 3 days and 18 days of age. The sections of ovarian tissues were immunostained by the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method (ABC) using polyclonal antisera raised against porcine inhibin α, inhibin/activin βA and inhibin/activin βB and bovine adrenal cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome P450 (P450scc), human placental 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3βHSD), porcine testicular 17α-hydroxylase cytochrome P450 (P450c17), and human placental aromatase cytochrome P450 (P450arom). Inhibin α and inhibin/activin βA subunits, but not inhibin/activin βB subunits were expressed in the ovarian interstitial cells of equine neonates. P450scc and P450c17 were also identified in the ovarian interstitial cells and P450arom with weak immunostaining. However, 3βHSD was not found in the ovarian interstitial cells of the equine neonates. These results suggest that equine neonatal ovaries have the ability to synthesize inhibin A and steroid hormones, which may play some important physiological roles in the developing ovaries of equine neonates.
In this equine study, we used an MDCT unit and a trestle for large animals to assess the utility of MDCT in the diagnosis locomotor system disorders and problems in the head and spine. We used a mature thoroughbred horse under general anesthesia and 5 specimens. For specimens, MDCT images were compared with other images taken by a computed radiography X-ray unit. In the live horse, use of the trestle for large animals enabled scanning under general anesthesia. In specimens, MDCT created 3D images of the fractured lesions and evaluation of multiple cross-sectional and sagittal images was possible. Further, multiple sagittal images and virtual endoscopic images revealed details of a spinal canal stenosis in the swayback case. These results indicate that MDCT is useful for diagnosing and viewing details of cases that conventional X-ray images do not capture.