An interesting aspect of athlete horse management is connected with the effects of the profuse sweating required to maintain body temperature. The various aspects related to thermoregulation are discussed, with special reference to water and electrolyte losses. The effects of the sporadic or systematic administration of rehydrating supplements were examined in four trotters aged 3-4 years used in competitions. The horses performed three exercise tests simulating a 2,000 m race. At the time of the second and third test, the control diet (Test 1) also included a rehydrating supplement which subjects had been receiving for one day (Test 2) or 12 days (Test 3). Subjects were weighed (at rest, after the race and 24 hr later) and blood samples were collected (at rest, immediately after the race; 20 min after the race, and 24 hr thereafter). Changes in weight and in blood parameters (pH, packed cell volume (PCV), lactic acid, Na+, K+, Cl-, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), antioxidant power (AOP) indicate a favourable effect of rehydrating supplements on muscle condition, especially when administered systematically.
An Immunohistochemical examination was conducted using commercially available primary antibodies to evaluate their utility for differential diagnosis of equine thyroid tumors i.e. non-functional C-cell adenoma, medullary carcinoma and follicular adenocarcinoma. The primary antibodies used in the study were antibodies against calcitonin, calcitonin-gene-related peptide (CGRP), thyroglobulin, chromogranin A, neuron specific enolase (NSE), synaptophysin and somatostatin. Calcitonin, NSE and synaptophysin were found to be useful to identify the origin of tumors as C-cells and thyroglobulin as follicular epithelial cells. In addition, it was found that detection of CGRP and chromogranin A is related with the functional status of C-cells. The carcino-related-gene (CRG) product, bcl-2, was positive in medullary carcinoma and follicular adenocarcinoma, and weakly positive to negative in non-functional C-cell adenoma. Another CRG product, p53, was positive in non-functional C-cell adenoma and follicular adenocarcinoma, and negative in medullary carcinoma. These results suggest that the expression pattern of 9 antigens used may be of help for the differential diagnosis of these tumors.
Different geographic regions in which thoroughbred yearling horses are bred have different climates and different types of forage in pasture and hay. These factors are likely to influence the energy metabolism and growth rate of yearling horses. However, the effects of the characteristics of geographic regions on the digestible energy (DE) intake and growth rate of thoroughbred yearlings has yet to be clarified in detail. Here, we have examined the effect of the breeding region on growth performance of young horses, by comparing the DE intakes and growth rates of thoroughbred yearlings in Hidaka (Hokkaido) and Miyazaki (Southern Kyushu) in Japan. Eighteen male thoroughbred yearlings were divided equally into two groups, and bred either at the Hidaka training and research center (HYF) or the Miyazaki yearling farm (MYF). Measurements were conducted in September (summer) and in February (winter), and the mean ages of the yearlings during these two periods were 18 months and 23-24 months old, respectively. The apparent digestible energy intake was measured by a double-indicator method using Cr2O3 and lignin. There was no significant difference in the DE intakes between the yearling horses at the HYF and MYF in either season. The warm land of Southwest Japan has been considered to be unsuitable for growing forage containing sufficient nutrients to feed thoroughbreds, but no nutritional disadvantage of this forage was detected in the yearlings bred at the MYF. On the other hand, the heart girth (HG) and cannon circumference (CC) were found to be significantly smaller in yearlings at the HYF, compared to those at the MYF, in the winter evaluation (p<0.05). Significant positive correlations between the ADG and DE intake/100 kg body weight were seen in animals at the HYF in the summer and in those at the MYF in both seasons; however, such a correlation was not found in horses at the HYF in winter. The reason for the smaller HG and CC and the absence of a significant correlation between the ADG and DE intake/100 kg body weight in the yearlings at the HYF in winter is unclear. It could be attributable to growth delay due to exposure to cold temperatures, or lack of supplementation to compensate for the increased energy requirement due to excess energy metabolism in cold weather. Closer attention must, therefore, be paid to the energy supply and nutritional composition of feedstuffs fed to thoroughbred yearlings at farms in regions with cold ambient temperatures.
There is no documentation on the diseases of horses in Zaria, Nigeria. A study was therefore conducted at the Ahmadu Bello University Veterinary Teaching Hospital (ABUVTH), Zaria, Nigeria to properly document the diseases of horses in the Northern Guinea Savannah of Zaria, Nigeria. The most common disease encountered was helminthosis, accounting for 809 (82.3%) of all the diseases diagnosed. Tetanus and rabies, which were also diagnosed in horses in this study have long been recognised as major zoonoses. The public health significance of these diseases in Zaria, Nigeria is discussed. It is concluded that research should be conducted to develop parasite vaccines from parasite strains native to Zaria, Nigeria to ameliorate parasitic diseases of horses in this area.