To clarify the physiological changes of sperm morphology in active Thoroughbred stallions during the breeding season, we examined the dismount semen collected from the penile urethra immediately after service. The spermatozoa were analyzed for relationships between the morphology and the stallion's age or the number of services. Seasonal variation was apparent in the rate of the sperm tail abnormalities, spermatozoa with cytoplasmic droplets, appearance of medusa cells, and sperm head length. Area and width of the sperm head correlated negatively with age (P<0.05). The rate of appearance of medusa cells and the length of the sperm head were positively related to the number of services (P<0.05), and the aspect ratio was negatively related (P<0.01).
This study aimed to establish a standard dose and sample collection time for 13C phenylalanine and 13C-Dipeptide breath test in horses. To evaluate dose-dependent effects, healthy horses received 2.5 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg, and 10 mg/kg 13C phenylalanine dissolved in 1 ml/kg distilled water and 1.25 mg/kg, 2.5 mg/kg, and 5 mg/kg 13C dipeptide dissolved in 2 ml/kg distilled water. Tmax was observed during the sample collection time. For 13C phenylalanine, the standard deviation of Cmax at 5 mg/kg was lower than that of 10 mg/kg. For 13C dipeptide, the standard deviation of Tmax was the lowest at 5 mg/kg. This study revealed that an optimal dose for breath tests with 13C phenylalanine and 13C dipeptide may be 5 mg/kg in horses.