Inflammatory airway disease (IAD) is a common cause of poor performance, interruption of training and premature retirement in racehorses. It is also reported that up to 80% of horses are affected at some point in the first years of training in UK and Australia. However, no studies with regard to the information on occurrence of IAD in Japanese Thoroughbred racehorses have been reported. To investigate the occurrence and the characteristics of IAD, epidemic research including endoscopic examination of the airway tract and trachea wash was conducted for Thoroughbred racehorses presenting coughs or poor performance which airway tract disease was suspected stalled in training facility managed by Japan Racing Association. Fifty-six out of 76 Thoroughbred racehorses (73.7%) presenting coughing or poor performance were diagnosed as IAD. Mean incidence rate of IAD was 0.3% and it has been confirmed that constant number of IAD exists in Japan. Up to 35.7% of IAD horses showed upper airway abnormalities in some extent. There was a trend for IAD horses to use wood shavings for bedding and fed hay from the ground compared with the control group. Therefore, improvement of stabling environment may aid in preventing IAD. This study demonstrated that Japanese Thoroughbred racehorses are affected by IAD likewise other countries as well as demonstrated the characteristics of IAD which may contribute to the clarification of the pathogenesis of IAD.
The concentrations of androstenedione, estradiol-17β, progesterone and PGF2α contained in the follicular fluid produced by the follicles in collected ovaries of mares that have had estrous phase during the breeding season were measured and analyzed the relation between the growth stage of follicles and the hormone levels in the follicular fluid. An ultrasonographic diagnostic instrument was used to measure the diameter of the follicles in order to categorize the follicles into three groups the following: 8 small follicles (from 1.0 to less than1.5 cm), 8 medium follicles (from 1.5 to less than 3.0 cm), and 8 large follicles (from 3.0 to 5.0 cm), respectively. The analysis of the follicular fluid in ovaries of estrous mares showed that the concentrations of androstenedione were significantly higher in the medium or large follicles than in the small follicles and the concentrations of estradiol-17β were significantly higher in larger follicles than in the small or medium follicles (P<0.05). The concentrations of progesterone and PGF2α, on the other hand, did not significantly vary regardless of follicluar size. In the follicles within the mare ovaries that have had estrous stage, the concentrations of the hormones related the ovulation, namely androstenedione and estradiol-17β, were higher with larger follicles.
A total of 88 thoroughbred mares were diagnosed with clinical ovarian quiescence and subjected to four treatment regimens. Using PMSG, hCG or combinations of both. A high dose combination of 5,000IU PMSG with 5,000IU hCG showed significantly higher rates of marked estrus and ovulation induction (P<0.01) as well as conception rates (P<0.05). In the present study, the administration of a high-dose combination of PMSG with hCG was shown to be an effective treatment of ovarian quiescence in light mares.