The combined thickness of the uterus and placenta (CTUP) and ultrasonographic images of uteroplacental tissues were investigated in 35 pregnant heavy draft horses in Months 7–12 of pregnancy. The mares were divided into three groups: those pathologically diagnosed as placentitis (placentitis group, n=3); those who had abortion, premature birth, or fetal malformation (abnormal group, n=7); and those who had no abnormal findings (normal group, n=25). In the normal group, CTUP increased as pregnancy progressed from Months 7 (median, 7.08 mm; range, 5.68–11.27) to 12 (13.31 mm; 7.44–16.31 mm) (P<0.05) and was higher than those reported previously in Thoroughbred, quarter, and American paint horses. Values of CTUP greater than the 75th percentile of the normal group from Months 7 (7.54 mm) to 12 (15.19 mm) were detected in 100% of the placentitis group (3/3) and in 86% of the abnormal group (6/7). Ultrasonographic images showing placental separation were obtained in 67% of the placentitis group (2/3), 29% of the abnormal group (2/7), and 20% of the normal group (5/25). Pathological placental edema and ultrasonographic images showing uteroplacental roughness or distinguishability were observed even in the normal group. These findings suggest that increased CTUP and placental separation would reflect placentitis and abnormal pregnancies and may help to detect them in heavy draft horses.
Computed tomography (CT) was performed for an 18-year-old female pony with enterolithiasis in the prone and supine positions. CT images from the prone position revealed displacement of the large dorsal colon, which contained an enterolith to the ventral side of the abdomen, and those from the supine position revealed displacement to the dorsal side. A high-density material suggestive of a metallic foreign body was also observed in the enterolith core. An enterolith (422 g, 104 mm) was surgically removed from the large dorsal colon. This caused no complications after surgery and increased the horse’s weight. Changing positions during CT helps identify the exact location of enterolith and intestinal displacement due to enterolith weight, as well as size and number.
Although hyperglycemia at admission with colic has been reported to have a poor prognosis, there is no report specifically about acute colitis with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in horses. In this study, we measured blood glucose (Glu), insulin (Ins), and cortisol (Cor) levels in 17 Thoroughbred racehorses diagnosed as having acute colitis with SIRS, and examined the relationship between time-dependent changes in Glu, Ins, and Cor and prognosis. Glu levels were high in 3 horses at admission, but thereafter no horses had persistently high Glu levels. There was no significant difference in Glu, Ins, and Cor levels within 72 hr between surviving and non-surviving horses. In conclusion, the Glu level is unlikely to be a useful prognostic biomarker in acute colitis with SIRS.
Polymorphisms in MSTN have previously been associated with equine performance. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify variants in MSTN intron 1 in 16 Brazilian Sport Horses selected for competition in eventing and their possible effects of selection on performance. Among the nine variants identified, eight had already been reported in previous studies or genomic databases, although they showed differences in frequencies when compared with other horse breeds. Moreover, a new mutation was identified in two horses, both in heterozygous form. Considering the absence of molecular studies in this valuable Brazilian breed, these findings represent an important contribution to the characterization of its genetic profile and may possibly aid in further genotype-phenotype association studies.
Bordetella bronchiseptica is a well-known Gram-negative bacterial pathogen causing a plethora of diseases in different animals. Although its infection has been reported from pigs and dogs in India, no report of B. bronchiseptica from horses is described. We report for the first time, isolation, identification and characterization of strains of B. bronchiseptica from respiratory infection in horses from different states in India. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed resistance to penicillins, ceftazidime, and chloramphanicol. The virulence capability of the strains was confirmed by sequencing genes such as adenylate cyclase toxin (cyaA), bordetella virulence gene (bvgA) and by PCR detection of flagellin gene (fla). We demonstrate the involvement of B. bronchiseptica strains in respiratory tract infection in horses in India.