In recent years, the international community has increasingly recognized that support for disability sports in developing countries is important. However, the influencing factors on the development of disability sports is unclear, especially in developing countries. This study focused on the number of athletes participating in the Paralympics as one index to promote sports for the disabled. From the case study, we aimed to clarify factors and effects affecting the increase the number of athletes. The subject of the survey was the Kingdom of Thailand, which has increased the number of its athletes participating in the Paralympics since 2000 as a developing country. From literature collection and interview surveys we gathered data on the incidents that have a significant impact on the increase in the number of competitors at Paralympics. The results revealed that both domestic factors and foreign factors affect the number of athletes participating in the Paralympics. Particularly in the domestic factors, the hosting of international competition triggered the increase in the number of competitors in the Paralympic Games. The significance of the meso level factor was indicated. On the other hand, foreign factors such as the institutional changes of the Paralympic Games by the IPC have been exerting influence and the existence of higher meta factors became clear.
The purpose of this research was to clarify the stress and mood / emotional fluctuation accompanying the AT certification examinations, and to examine the necessity of providing psychological support. Subjects were 8 people in the fourth grade belonging to university A who took the AT certification examinations in 2017. Using Salivary α-Amylase Activity (sAA) as a stress marker, samples were taken over 3 times; "10 days before the examination", "the morning of the examination day", and "the day of the examination day". Also, in order to evaluate mood / emotion, the Japanese version Short-form of POMS (POMS) was conducted "10 days before the examination" and "the night before the examination". As a result of comparing the results of three sAA, the result of "the morning of the examination day" was significantly higher (p＜0.05) than that of "the day of the examination day", and no significant difference was observed in other cases. Regarding the results of POMS, no significant difference was found in all items when compared twice, but tension and anxiety "10 days before the examination" required caution. In other words, it was suggested that not only educational support but also psychological support is necessary for those who refrain from taking AT certification examinations.
This study examined and compared the penetration situation of the Happy Workplace Program (HWP) in Thai and Japanese companies which have their business operations in Thailand. As a local workplace health promotion program that encourages exercise and sport for working people, the HWP has been promoted by the Thai Health Promotion Foundation (Thai Health), an autonomous state agency in Thailand. The number of Thai and Japanese companies was collected through the “White Paper of SMEs 2015” published by the Office of Small and Medium Enterprise in Thailand (OSMET) and the Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO) 2017 survey on Business Conditions of Japanese Companies in Thailand. In regards to the number of the companies which implemented the HWP, the company name list found in the official website of the Happy Workplace Center, an affiliated organization of Thai Health was used. The results of the study showed that the penetration rate of the HWP in all Japanese companies in Thailand is higher than the rate of all Thai companies in Thailand. However, regarding the penetration rate by size of a company, 0.01%, 2.92%, and 7.73% were found for small, medium and large size Thai companies respectively, while 0%, 1.67%, and 4.98% were shown for small, medium, and large size Japanese companies in Thailand. These results indicate that there is room to strategically disseminate and promote the HWP to the Japanese top management of Japanese companies in Thailand. Also, implementation of a certification scheme such as the Health and Productivity Stock Selection in Japan could be one of the effective ways to motivate Japanese companies in Thailand to introduce the HWP as a corporate strategy.
The designation of undrafted player started its history in the Nippon Professional Baseball (“NPB”) when the NPB introduced its entry draft for the Japanese amateur players in 1965. The NPB clubs used undrafted players to gain competitive edges while the draft system was to bring competitive balance on the field. Many top amateur players who were supposed to remain amateur signed with the NPB teams as undrafted players, to many people’ s surprise. The NPB clubs often put undrafted players outside of the roster as practice players. 1990 was the year when historical changes were made to the entry draft system in the NPB. The NPB expanded the number of draft picks and the roster while it banned the teams from signing amateur players as free agents. Carrying practice players was outlawed at the same time. The demand for another development system had been growing among NPB clubs with the number of industrial league teams diminishing and players losing opportunities to play. That is how the developmental player system was born in 2005. 2005 was also the year the first independent league in Japan was born, in Shikoku Island. As of 2018, 17 teams, in three leagues, are active. There has been a steady increase in the number of independent league players who were picked in the developmental draft. As the birth of the developmental player system and the independent league happened to be in the same year, both took their roots in the diminishing of the number of industrial league teams and in the players’ losing opportunities to play. Another significance of this study lies in the fact that a list of all Japanese players who signed with the NPB teams since the first draft is databased in a spreadsheet.
Gross Value Added (GVA) of the sports economy of countries has been provided in the report of the Sport Satellite Account (SSA). Employment and Consumption Expenditure has also been investigated to present the economic value of the sport sector in EU. The methodology of the Sport Industry Statistic such as SSA is necessary for the further development of Japan’s Sport Industry. SSA is the international standard, with its original definition of sports named the Vilnius definition. The purpose of this study was to figure out how to compose Japan’ s SSA while understanding how to apply the Vilnius definition in the Japanese context and make the economic statistics of Japan comparable to other countries using the SSA. The Vilnius definition is based on the Classification of Products and Services (CPA). It became clear that in the current economic statistics of Japan, there is no classification table corresponding to CPA. Thus, the Input-Output Table (IO Table) and the System of National Accounts (SNA) could be useful instead of CPA.. This study clarified how to apply the Vilnius definition for Japan’s SSA. The Vilnius definition is a guide to defining products / services related to Sport Industries in Europe, but in using it, it is necessary to carefully consider the different circumstances of each country. It would be important to create Japan’ s own SSA based on this study and utilize it for promotion of the Sport Industry in the future.
School-based extracurricular sports activity (SBECSA) has widely spread in Japan as a means for youth to play sports or exercise. Especially in junior high school and high school, SBECSA is actively conducted with a high participation rate of students. There have also been reports that elementary schools in some Japanese municipalities also have SBECSA. However, there has been little information about which municipalities conducted SBECSA in elementary schools. Therefore, the present study aimed to clarify the existence of SBECSA in elementary schools in each municipality, and to create a municipal map of implementation status. A complete enumeration questionnaire survey was conducted with all 1741 municipalities’ educational boards. Question items were in regard to the existence of elementary schools’ SBECSA in their municipalities. Answerers were requested to choose one response from the items; “almost all elementary schools have SBECSA”, “some elementary schools have SBECSA”, “there were SBECSA (about 10 years ago), but now there is no SBECSA”, “there weren’ t any SBECSA before 10 years ago”, “we don’ t know”, and “we don’ t answer” . To increase the response rate, a second survey was conducted with Sports Associations or similar sports related organizations in each municipality. Additionally, a third survey was conducted with educational boards again at the same time as the feedback of results was given. As results, 88.0% of all municipalities’ implementation status was identified (response rate = 92.5%). And 23.0% of all municipalities were shown to have SBECSA in elementary schools, although 64.9% did not have it. More than half of the municipalities in Aomori prefecture, Chiba prefecture, Aichi prefecture, and Kumamoto prefecture have SBECSA in elementary school. Based on the results of the present study, it is suggested that further development of the youth sport environment should be discussed. In addition, means to decrease the burdens on teachers who coach and manage SBECSA must be considered.